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GOES-R

  • GOES-R Resource Reel
    2014.05.29
    The new generation GOES-R satellites will carry significant improvements and technology innovation on board. GOES-R will be able to deliver a full globe scan in only 5 minutes, compared to the 25 minutes needed for the same task with the current GOES satellites. GOES-R's lightning mapper instrument is expected to improve warning lead time for severe storms and tornadoes by 50%. This without a doubt will help predict severe weather in advance and save more lives. This reel is a compilation of finished productions about the GOES-R mission as well as supporting materials such as animations, visualizations, and still images.
  • GOES Weather with Topper Shutt
    2010.03.19
    On March 4th, 2010, NASA launched GOES-P (later re-named GOES-15), the last satellite in the N-O-P series. With GOES-P now in orbit ensuring GOES weather observations for years to come, the NASA and NOAA team will turn their attention to the next generation GOES-R series, satellites that will provide images with even greater resolution and speed of data delivery.

Legacy GOES Satellites

  • The 2015 Earth-Orbiting Heliophysics Fleet
    2015.06.10
    There've been a few changes since the 2013 Earth-Orbiting Heliophysics Fleet. As of Spring of 2015, here's a tour of the NASA Near-Earth Heliophysics fleet, covering the space from near-Earth orbit out to the orbit of the Moon.

    The satellite orbits are color coded for their observing program:

    • Magenta: TIM (Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere) observations
    • Yellow: solar observations and imagery
    • Cyan: Geospace and magnetosphere
    • Violet: Heliospheric observations

    Near-Earth Fleet:

    • Hinode: Observes the Sun in multiple wavelengths up to x-rays. SVS page
    • RHESSI : Observes the Sun in x-rays and gamma-rays. SVS page
    • TIMED: Studies the upper layers (40-110 miles up) of the Earth's atmosphere.
    • CINDI: Measures interactions of neutral and charged particles in the ionosphere.
    • SORCE: Monitors solar intensity across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum.
    • AIM: Images and measures noctilucent clouds. SVS page
    • Van Allen Probes: Two probes moving along the same orbit esigned to study the impact of space weather on Earth's radiation belts. SVS page
    • TWINS: Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-Atom Spectrometers (TWINS) are two probes observing the Earth with neutral atom imagers.
    • IRIS: Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph is designed to take high-resolution spectra and images of the region between the solar photosphere and solar atmosphere.

    Geosynchronous Fleet:

    • SDO: Solar Dynamics Observatory keeps the Sun under continuous observation at 16 megapixel resolution.

    Geospace Fleet:

    Lunar Orbiting Fleet

    • ARTEMIS: Two of the THEMIS satellites were moved into lunar orbit to study the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the Moon.
    Major changes with earlier versions:
    • MMS added
    • GOES satellites removed
    • Cluster satellites removed
    • Camera moves around the night-side of Earth
    • .
  • Hurricane Resource Page
    2015.05.29
    This Reel Includes the Following Sections TRT 50:10 Hurricane Overviews 1:02; Hurricane Arthur 15:07; Cyclone Pam 19:48; Typhoon Hagupit 21:27; Hurricane Bertha 22:03; Hurricanes Iselle and Julio 23:15; September 2014 Hurricane Alley 25:07; Satellite Beauty Passes 28:31; Hurricane Katrina 36:32; Global Portrait of Precipitation 42:00; Typhoon Halong 42:36; Typhoon Maysak 43:13; Superstorm Sandy 44:21; Hurricanes Fay and Gonzalo 45:29; RapidScat 46:12; CYGNSS 49:16 Super(s): NASA; Center Contact: Rob Gutro 301-286-4044; HQ Contact: Steve Cole 202-358-0918; Link to gallery hurricane and typhoon resource page. Includes a section for named storms between 1988-2007 including Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Gallery page also includes the following sections: hurricane resources; TRMM 3D hurricane products; narrated hurricane products and hurricanes sea surface temperature connections. Gallery resource page for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. Includes 3D scans of recent storms like Hurricane Bertha and Super Typhoon Maysak. It also includes IMERG visualizations, beauty passes of the satellite and edited features. Gallery resource page for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Video file for the RapidScat mission. More information about RapidScat can be found HERE. Link to video for the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System, or CYGNSS mission. More about the mission HERE.
  • GPM Examines Super Typhoon Maysak
    2015.04.08
    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Satellite captured a 3-D image of Typhoon Maysak on March 30th as the storm approached the Yap Islands. The storm later intensified to a category 5-equivalent super typhoon with 150-mph sustains winds.

    The GPM Core Observatory carries two instruments that show the location and intensity of rain and snow, which defines a crucial part of the storm structure – and how it will behave. The GPM Microwave Imager sees through the tops of clouds to observe how much and where precipitation occurs, and the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar observes precise details of precipitation in 3-dimensions.

    GPM data is part of the toolbox of satellite data used by forecasters and scientists to understand how storms behave. GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Current and future data sets are available with free registration to users from NASA Goddard's Precipitation Processing Center website.

  • GPM Sees Baltimore/Washington Corridor Snow Storm (Feb. 21, 2015)
    2015.02.26
    At 10:05 a.m. EST Saturday, Feb. 21, 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement mission's Core Observatory flew over a snow storm that covered most of the Washington DC metro area leaving as much as 9 inches of snow in some of the surrounding suburbs.

    The GPM Core Observatory carries two instruments that show the location and intensity of rain and snow, which defines a crucial part of the storm structure – and how it will behave. The GPM Microwave Imager sees through the tops of clouds to observe how much and where precipitation occurs, and the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar observes precise details of precipitation in 3-dimensions.

    GPM data is part of the toolbox of satellite data used by forecasters and scientists to understand how storms behave. GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Current and future data sets are available with free registration to users from NASA Goddard's Precipitation Processing Center website.

  • GPM Observes Snow Storm over Kentucky, West Virginia, and North Carolina (Feb. 17, 2015)
    2015.02.26
    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Satellite captured a 3-D image of a winter storm on Feb. 17 that left six to 12 inches of snow over much of Kentucky, southwestern West Virginia, and northwestern North Carolina. The shades of blue in the 3-D image indicate rates of snowfall with more intense snowfall shown in darker blue. Underneath where it melts into rain, the most intense rainfall is shown in red. You can see a lot of variation in precipitation types over the Southeastern portion of the United States.

    The GPM Core Observatory carries two instruments that show the location and intensity of rain and snow, which defines a crucial part of the storm structure – and how it will behave. The GPM Microwave Imager sees through the tops of clouds to observe how much and where precipitation occurs, and the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar observes precise details of precipitation in 3-dimensions.

    GPM data is part of the toolbox of satellite data used by forecasters and scientists to understand how storms behave. GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Current and future data sets are available with free registration to users from NASA Goddard's Precipitation Processing Center website.

  • Twelve Days of AR12192 from SDO and GOES
    2015.02.11
    The large active region AR12192 is carried across the solar disk by the Sun's rotation. The region erupted with a large number of M and an X-class flares. Flare classification is defined by the measured X-ray flux from a detector on the GOES satellites (see Classifying Solar Eruptions). This visualization was the result of some experiments to present both the SDO imagery and GOES X-ray flux as part of a single movie.
  • December 4, 2014: M6 Flare as Seen by Solar Dynamics Observatory & GOES
    2015.02.11
    This visualization is another experiment combining two datasets, the imaging capability of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the X-ray flux measurments of the GOES satellite. It is focussed on the December 4, 2014 M6 flare. The GOES satellite X-ray detector has defined the standard for classifying solar flares (see Classifying Solar Eruptions).
  • GPM Sees 2015 Nor'easter Dump Snow on New England
    2015.01.28
    At 5:06 p.m. EST Monday, Jan. 26, 2015, the Global Precipitation Measurement mission's Core Observatory flew over the nor'easter dumping snow on New England. This satellite image shows precipitation rate of rainfall, in green to red, and snowfall, in blue to purple. The center of the storm, shown in 3-D, was offshore with far reaching bands of snowfall. More intense snow rates are shown in shades of blue, which can be seen on the northern edge of the storm and also over land up the coast from New York to Maine and into Canada, as well in the upper atmosphere before turning to heavy rainfall over the ocean.

    Nor'easters form when warm moist air traveling north with the Gulf Stream up the coast collides with cold air travelling down from Canada. The combination of moisture and cold can develop into snowstorms. In Jan. 2015, these air masses collided into a storm that brought blizzard conditions with, as of Tuesday morning, up to 30 inches of snow and 70 mile per hour winds across parts of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire New York and Rhode Island. Lesser snow totals also hit New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia. Snow is expected to continue to fall into Wednesday as the storm moves northeast up the coast.

    The GPM Core Observatory carries two instruments that show the location and intensity of rain and snow, which defines a crucial part of the storm structure – and how it will behave. The GPM Microwave Imager sees through the tops of clouds to observe how much and where precipitation occurs, and the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar observes precise details of precipitation in 3-dimensions.

    GPM data is part of the toolbox of satellite data used by forecasters and scientists to understand how storms behave. GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Current and future data sets are available with free registration to users from NASA Goddard's Precipitation Processing Center website.

  • The 2013 Earth-Orbiting Heliophysics Fleet
    2013.12.16
    There've been a few changes since the 2012 Earth-Orbiting Heliophysics Fleet. As of Fall of 2013, here's a tour of the NASA Near-Earth Heliophysics fleet, covering the space from near-Earth orbit out to the orbit of the Moon.

    The satellite orbits are color coded for their observing program:

    • Magenta: TIM (Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere) observations
    • Yellow: solar observations and imagery
    • Cyan: Geospace and magnetosphere
    • Violet: Heliospheric observations

    Near-Earth Fleet:

    • Hinode: Observes the Sun in multiple wavelengths up to x-rays. SVS page
    • RHESSI : Observes the Sun in x-rays and gamma-rays. SVS page
    • TIMED: Studies the upper layers (40-110 miles up) of the Earth's atmosphere.
    • FAST: Measures particles and fields in regions where aurora form.
    • CINDI: Measures interactions of neutral and charged particles in the ionosphere.
    • SORCE: Monitors solar intensity across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum.
    • AIM: Images and measures noctilucent clouds. SVS page
    • Van Allen Probes: Two probes moving along the same orbit esigned to study the impact of space weather on Earth's radiation belts. SVS page
    • TWINS: Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-Atom Spectrometers (TWINS) are two probes observing the Earth with neutral atom imagers.
    • IRIS: Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph is designed to take high-resolution spectra and images of the region between the solar photosphere and solar atmosphere.

    Geosynchronous Fleet:

    • SDO: Solar Dynamics Observatory keeps the Sun under continuous observation at 16 megapixel resolution.
    • GOES: The newest GOES satellites include a solar X-ray imager operated by NOAA.

    Geospace Fleet:

    • Geotail: Conducts measurements of electrons and ions in the Earth's magnetotail.
    • Cluster: This is a group of four satellites which fly in formation to measure how particles and fields in the magnetosphere vary in space and time. SVS page
    • THEMIS: This is a fleet of three satellites to study how magnetospheric instabilities produce substorms. Two of the original five satellites were moved into lunar orbit to become ARTEMIS. SVS page
    • IBEX: The Interstellar Boundary Explorer measures the flux of neutral atoms from the heliopause.

    Lunar Orbiting Fleet

    • ARTEMIS: Two of the THEMIS satellites were moved into lunar orbit to study the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the Moon.
  • MODIS Cloud Optical Thickness
    2013.03.14
    NASA’s Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) works to maximize the impact of NASA’s satellite observations in weather and climate analysis and prediction through integrated Earth system modeling and data assimilation. This visualization compares cloud optical thickness from a GMAO simulation using the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) [top] to observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua and Terra [bottom], August 17-26, 2009. A cloud's optical thickness is a measure of attenuation of the light passing through the atmosphere due to the scattering and absorption by cloud droplets. Clouds do not absorb visible wavelengths of sunlight; rather, clouds scatter and reflect most visible light. Here, light blue shades indicate areas where there are low cloud-optical-thickness values, while red and orange shades indicate high values (i.e., greater attenuation caused by the scattering and absorption from cloud droplets). The higher a cloud's optical thickness, the more sunlight the cloud is scattering and reflecting.
  • The 2012 Earth-Orbiting Heliophysics Fleet
    2012.09.20
    Since Sentinels of the Heliosphere in 2008, there have been a few new missions, and a few missions have been shut down. As of Fall of 2012, here's a tour of the NASA Near-Earth Heliophysics fleet, covering the space from near-Earth orbit out to the orbit of the Moon. Revision (November 9, 2012): The RBSP mission has been renamed the Van Allen Probes. NASA Press Release. The satellite orbits are color coded for their observing program:
    • Magenta: TIM (Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere) observations
    • Yellow: solar observations and imagery
    • Cyan: Geospace and magnetosphere
    • Violet: Heliospheric observations

    Near-Earth Fleet:

    • Hinode: Observes the Sun in multiple wavelengths up to x-rays. SVS page
    • RHESSI : Observes the Sun in x-rays and gamma-rays. SVS page
    • TIMED: Studies the upper layers (40-110 miles up) of the Earth's atmosphere.
    • FAST: Measures particles and fields in regions where aurora form.
    • CINDI: Measures interactions of neutral and charged particles in the ionosphere.
    • SORCE: Monitors solar intensity across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum.
    • AIM: Images and measures noctilucent clouds. SVS page
    • RBSP: (Renamed the Van Allen Probes) Designed to study the impact of space weather on Earth's radiation belts. SVS page

    Geosynchronous Fleet:

    • SDO: Solar Dynamics Observatory keeps the Sun under continuous observation at 16 megapixel resolution.
    • GOES: The newest GOES satellites include a solar X-ray imager operated by NOAA.

    Geospace Fleet:

    • Geotail: Conducts measurements of electrons and ions in the Earth's magnetotail.
    • Cluster: This is a group of four satellites which fly in formation to measure how particles and fields in the magnetosphere vary in space and time. SVS page
    • THEMIS: This is a fleet of three satellites to study how magnetospheric instabilities produce substorms. Two of the original five satellites were moved into lunar orbit to become ARTEMIS. SVS page
    • IBEX: The Interstellar Boundary Explorer measures the flux of neutral atoms from the heliopause.

    Lunar Orbiting Fleet

    • ARTEMIS: Two of the THEMIS satellites were moved into lunar orbit to study the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the Moon.
    Note: A number of near-Earth missions had their orbits generated from Two-Line orbital elements valid in July 2012. Orbit perturbations since then may result in significant deviation from the actual satellite position for the time frame of this visualization.
  • SDO First Light Media
    2011.03.03
    A compilation of some of the videos and stills used during the SDO First Light press conference.

    For more video and stills from First Light, go here.

  • Teen Sailor Meets NASA Team That Saved Her Life
    2010.11.19
    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have the ability to not only monitor Earth's weather but also to recieve distress signals from victims. Currently, the Search and Rescue Satellite-Aided System SARSAT, developed by a NASA Goddard team, has saved more than 27,000 lives since its launch 30 years ago. The same team is now developing a new system, which will use a constellation of 24 GPS satellites to be able to pick up a distress signal and relay the victim's location precisely and almost instantly.
  • Hurricane Danielle's Hot Towers August 27,2010 Stereoscopic Version
    2010.10.30
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft allows us to look under Hurricane Danielle's clouds to see the rain structure on August 27, 2005 at 06:46 UTC or 2:46 EDT. At this time, Hurricane Danielle was a powerful Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale with sustained winds of 115 knots (132 mph). An area of deep convective towers (shown in red) is prominently visible in the center of the storm. These tall towers are the key to Danielle's intensification. They are associated with the strong thunderstorms responsible for the areas of intense rain. These storms within a storm are releasing vast amounts of heat into the core of Danielle. This heating, known as latent heating, is what is driving the storm's circulation and intensification. This animation shows infrared data from TRMM's Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) sensor above a thinner swath from TRMM's Precipitation Radar (PR). TRMM reveals that Danielle now has a well-formed eye surrounded by sharply curved rainbands—all signs of mature storm with an intense circulation. TRMM also reveals that there are very powerful thunderstorms in Danielle's eye wall dropping extreme amounts of rain.
  • Hurricane Danielle's Hot Towers
    2010.09.02
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft allows us to look under Hurricane Danielle's clouds to see the rain structure on August 27, 2005 at 06:46 UTC or 2:46 EDT. At this time, Hurricane Danielle was a powerful Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale with sustained winds of 115 knots (132 mph). An area of deep convective towers (shown in red) is prominently visible in the center of the storm. These tall towers are the key to Danielle's intensification. They are associated with the strong thunderstorms responsible for the areas of intense rain seen in the previous image. These storms within a storm are releasing vast amounts of heat into the core of Danielle. This heating, known as latent heating, is what is driving the storm's circulation and intensification. This animation shows infrared data from TRMM's Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) sensor above a thinner swath from TRMM's Precipitation Radar (PR). TRMM reveals that Danielle now has a well-formed eye surrounded by sharply curved rainbands—all signs of mature storm with an intense circulation. TRMM also reveals that there are very powerful thunderstorms in Danielle's eye wall dropping extreme amounts of rain.
  • Hurricane Earl Develops Stirs up the Atlantic on August 31, 2010
    2010.08.29
    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this natural-color image of Hurricane Earl on August 26 at 1545 UTC. At this time, she was a category 4 storm with winds of 135 mph.
  • Hurricane Danielle Churns in the Atlantic on August 26, 2010
    2010.08.27
    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this natural-color image of Hurricane Danielle on August 26 at 1555 UTC. At this time, she was a category 2 storm with winds of 90 knots and a pressure reading of 982 mb. Danielle has a distinct eye with the storm's longest spiral arms streching toward the northeast.
  • Hurricane Alex Makes Landfall in Northeastern Mexico
    2010.07.01
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Alex on June 30, 2010 at 2103 UTC (5:02 PM EST). At this time, Hurricane Alex was increasing in intensity and had become a category 2 storm with estimated winds at 75 knots (~86.4 mph) and a pressure reading of 962 mb. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar (PR) instruments. The TMI rainfall analysis shows that Alex had a well defined eye containing powerful thounderstorms that were dropping extreme amounts of rain. The clouds are taken by TRMM's visible-infrared radiometer (VIRS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-13) infrared instrument. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. The colored isosurface under the clouds show the rain seen by the PR instrument. Areas of extremely heavy rainfall are colored in red. Heavy rainfall are colored in yellow, moderate rainfall are colored in green, and light rain are in blue.
  • Hurricane Katrina 3D Stereoscopic Viewfinder Image
    2010.07.01
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Katrina on August 28, 2005. At the time the data was collected, Katrina was a Category 5 hurricane, the most destructive and deadly. The cloud cover data was taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS), with additional data from the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure data was taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI). This view looks underneath the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. This stereoscopic still image was created from a previous visualization and is intended for viewing through a special NASA Earth Science Viewfinder available through NASA Headquarters. Below, we include an anaglyph version, a printable viewfinder version, and the individual left eye and right eye views.
  • Tropical Depression ALEX hits Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula
    2010.06.29
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Depression Alex on June 27, 2010 at 2214 UTC (6:14 PM EST). Tropical depression Alex was near the western coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Alex had weakened and wasn't dropping the very heavy rainfall that had occurred a day earlier causing deadly flooding. At the time of this image, Alex had winds estimated at 35 knots (~40.3 mph) and a pressure reading of 991 mb. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar (PR) instruments. The clouds are taken by TRMM's visible-infrared radiometer (VIRS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-13) infrared instrument. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. The colored isosurface under the clouds show the rain seen by the PR instrument. Areas of extremely heavy rainfall are colored in red. Heavy rainfall are colored in yellow, moderate rainfall are colored in green, and light rain are in blue.
  • Saved By A Weather Satellite
    2010.05.24
    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have the ability to constantly oversee a large area of the Earth and send real time data to users. GOES sends not only weather data but it also watches the sun continuously and at the same time provides critical data that helps rescue personal locate victims in distress.
  • A Weather Satellite Watches The Sun
    2010.04.27
    GOES is a series of weather satellites providing continuous delivery of real time data helping meteorologists predict weather on Earth with great accuracy. The GOES satellites also look at the Sun and send critical data to space weather forecasters. These space weather warnings are critical to power companies, airplanes, astronauts, and many more.
  • GOES Weather with Topper Shutt
    2010.03.19
    On March 4th, 2010, NASA launched GOES-P (later re-named GOES-15), the last satellite in the N-O-P series. With GOES-P now in orbit ensuring GOES weather observations for years to come, the NASA and NOAA team will turn their attention to the next generation GOES-R series, satellites that will provide images with even greater resolution and speed of data delivery.
  • GOES-P Readied For Launch
    2010.03.03
    GOES-P is the last in the GOES N-O-P series of weather satellites and it will provide continuity of service for real-time weather prediction on Earth as well as space weather events and search and rescue efforts.
  • GOES-P: Mission Overview Video
    2010.02.22
    GOES-P is set to launch in 2010. It will be the last in an improved series of satellites that has helped forecast the development of severe weather for 35 years. Operated by NOAA and launched by NASA, GOES-P will continue providing critical data used for real-time weather prediction on Earth as well as space weather events, and search and rescue efforts.
  • Tropical Storm Ida Observed on November 9, 2009 at 1218 UTC
    2009.11.09
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Storm Ida on November 9, 2009 at 1218 UTC (7:18 AM EST). Scattered convective thunderstorms are shown producing moderate to heavy rainfall of over 50 millimeters per hour (~2 inches) north of IDA's center of circulation and in a strong band on the eastern side. At the time of this image IDA had winds estimated at 70 knots (~80.5 mph). IDA is predicted by the National Hurricane Center in Miami, Florida to hit the Gulf coast near Pensacola, Florida on Tuesday morning. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. The colored isosurface under the clouds show the rain seen by the PR instrument.
  • 2008 Northern Australia Fire Observations
    2009.09.13
    The data used to generate this animation were collected by the NASA MODIS intrument. Data are collected four times per day using two satellite platforms. The instrument design included the capability to identify active fires sensing in the middle infrared part of the spectrum. The fire data used in the animation were generated by the MODIS advanced processing system at NASA. The MODIS Global Fire data are available free of charge and within a few hours of satellite acquisition. The fire data are used by scientists and fire managers around the world.

    The fires that these data show include - savanna fires, wildfires, managed fires, agricultural fires, and thermal anomalies associated with power plants or gas flares. Fires occur around the world at different times of the year.

    MODIS is entering its 10th year of data collection and we are using the data to study the global distribution of fires and document changed in fire regimes due to climate or land use change.

    These fire data are used by Australian fire managers and scientists. Dr Chris Justice and the MODIS team participated in the NAILSMA experiment. NAILSMA was commissioned by the Northern Australia Land and Water Taskforce to convene a forum to bring together key Indigenous water experts from across the north of Australia to discuss their water interests and issues. This part of Northern Australia is an important area in terms of biodiversity and fire is an integral ecosystem process. We are interested in applying these data and other data from the MODIS instrument to better understand the occurence of fire and its characteristics in the Northern Territories with respect to emissions of trace gases into the atmosphere an the imacts of fire on the ecosystem.

  • A Tour of the Cryosphere 2009
    2009.09.01
    The cryosphere consists of those parts of the Earth's surface where water is found in solid form, including areas of snow, sea ice, glaciers, permafrost, ice sheets, and icebergs. In these regions, surface temperatures remain below freezing for a portion of each year. Since ice and snow exist relatively close to their melting point, they frequently change from solid to liquid and back again due to fluctuations in surface temperature. Although direct measurements of the cryosphere can be difficult to obtain due to the remote locations of many of these areas, using satellite observations scientists monitor changes in the global and regional climate by observing how regions of the Earth's cryosphere shrink and expand.

    This animation portrays fluctuations in the cryosphere through observations collected from a variety of satellite-based sensors. The animation begins in Antarctica, showing some unique features of the Antarctic landscape found nowhere else on earth. Ice shelves, ice streams, glaciers, and the formation of massive icebergs can be seen clearly in the flyover of the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica. A time series shows the movement of iceberg B15A, an iceberg 295 kilometers in length which broke off of the Ross Ice Shelf in 2000. Moving farther along the coastline, a time series of the Larsen ice shelf shows the collapse of over 3,200 square kilometers ice since January 2002. As we depart from the Antarctic, we see the seasonal change of sea ice and how it nearly doubles the apparent area of the continent during the winter.

    From Antarctica, the animation travels over South America showing glacier locations on this mostly tropical continent. We then move further north to observe daily changes in snow cover over the North American continent. The clouds show winter storms moving across the United States and Canada, leaving trails of snow cover behind. In a close-up view of the western US, we compare the difference in land cover between two years: 2003 when the region received a normal amount of snow and 2002 when little snow was accumulated. The difference in the surrounding vegetation due to the lack of spring melt water from the mountain snow pack is evident.

    As the animation moves from the western US to the Arctic region, the areas affected by permafrost are visible. As time marches forward from March to September, the daily snow and sea ice recede and reveal the vast areas of permafrost surrounding the Arctic Ocean.

    The animation shows a one-year cycle of Arctic sea ice followed by the mean September minimum sea ice for each year from 1979 through 2008. The superimposed graph of the area of Arctic sea ice at this minimum clearly shows the dramatic decrease in Artic sea ice over the last few years.

    While moving from the Arctic to Greenland, the animation shows the constant motion of the Arctic polar ice using daily measures of sea ice activity. Sea ice flows from the Arctic into Baffin Bay as the seasonal ice expands southward. As we draw close to the Greenland coast, the animation shows the recent changes in the Jakobshavn glacier. Although Jakobshavn receded only slightly from 1964 to 2001, the animation shows significant recession from 2001 through 2009. As the animation pulls out from Jakobshavn, the effect of the increased flow rate of Greenland costal glaciers is shown by the thinning ice shelf regions near the Greenland coast.

    This animation shows a wealth of data collected from satellite observations of the cryosphere and the impact that recent cryospheric changes are making on our planet.

    For more information on the data sets used in this visualization, visit NASA's EOS DAAC website.

    Note: This animation is an update of the animation 'A Short Tour of the Cryosphere', which is itself an abridged version of the animation 'A Tour of the Cryosphere'. The popularity of the earlier animations and their continuing relevance prompted us to update the datasets in parts of the animation and to remake it in high definition. In certain cases, our experiences in using the earlier work have led us to tweak the presentation of some of the material to make it clearer. Our thanks to Dr. Robert Bindschadler for suggesting and supporting this remake.

  • Hurricane Bill on August 17, 2009 at 1133 UTC
    2009.08.17
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Bill on August 17, 2009 at 1133 UTC. At this time the storm was a category 1 hurricane with sustained winds of 56 knots (64 mph), a pressure reading of 994 millibars. The cloud cover in this animation is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. The colored isosurface under the clouds show the rain seen by the PR instrument.
  • GOES-O Mission Overview Video
    2009.06.10
    For more info on the GOES-O Mission, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/GOES-O.
  • Sea Ice over the Arctic and Antarctic designed for Science on a Sphere (SOS) and WMS
    2009.02.05
    Sea ice is frozen seawater floating on the surface of the ocean, typically averaging a few meters in thickness. Some sea ice is semi-permanent, persisting from year to year, and some is seasonal, melting and refreezing from season to season. This animation shows how the seasonal global sea ice has changed from day to day since 2002, when the Aqua satellite was launched. The AMSR-E instrument on the Aqua satellite acquires high resolution measurements of the 89 GHz brightness temperature and sea ice concentration near the poles. This sensor is able to observe the entire polar region every day, even through clouds and snowfall, because it is not very sensitive to atmospheric effects. The false color of the sea ice, derived from the AMSR-E 6.25 km 89 GHz brightness temperature, highlights the fissures or divergence areas in the sea ice cover by warm brightness temperatures (in blue) while cold brightness temperatures, shown in brighter white, represent consolidated sea ice. The sea ice edge identifies areas containing at least 15% ice concentration in the three-day moving average of the AMSR-E 12.5 km sea ice concentration data.

    This sequence shows the daily global sea ice over both the Arctic and Antarctic on a Cartesian grid from June 21, 2002 through December 31, 2008 at a frame rate of four frames per day. On days when data is not available, the prior or following day's data is used. Periods when data was absent for several consecutive days include: 2002/07/29 through 2002/08/08, 2002/09/11 through 2002/09/20, and 2003/10/29 through 2003/11/03.

  • NOAA-N Prime and GOES-O in Orbit Animation
    2009.01.21
    Since 1960, NOAA has operated a fleet of Polar-orbiting Environmental Satellites called POES, complimented by the higher altitude (36,000km) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). The stationary GOES satellites give a constant view from two points in space, while the polar-orbiting NOAA-N Prime circles the Earth at a lower altitude (860km) once every 102 minutes. These two systems provide continuous data about the global atmosphere.
  • 2008 Hurricane Season with Sea Surface Temperature
    2008.11.30
    This animation depicts the 2008 hurricane season and the corresponding water temperature, for the dates 6/1/08 through 11/30/08. The colors on the ocean represent the sea surface temperatures, and satellite images of the storm clouds are laid over the temperatures to clearly show the positions of the storms. Hurricane winds are sustained by the heat energy of the warm surface waters of the ocean. As a hurricane passes over the warm surface it churns the water, drawing the deeper, cooler water to the surface. This mixing can appear in the animation as a blue pool trailing the hurricane. The sea surface temperature data was taken by the AMSR-E instrument on the Aqua satellite, while the cloud images were taken by the Imager on the GOES-12 satellite.
  • Hurricane Gustav Sea Surface Temperature, 8/31/08
    2008.09.30
    This visualization shows Hurricane Gustav and Tropical Storm Hanna as they appeared on August 31, 2008. The colors on the ocean represent the sea surface temperatures, and satellite images of the storm clouds are laid over the temperatures to clearly show the positions of the storms. Hurricane winds are sustained by the heat energy of the ocean, so the ocean is cooled as the hurricane passes and the energy is extracted to power the winds. This cooling is shown by the blue trail in the Gulf of Mexico on the east side of Gustav. The sea surface temperature data was taken by the AMSR-E instrument on the Aqua satellite, while the cloud images were taken by the Imager on the GOES-12 satellite.
  • Hurricane Ike Attacks the Gulf Coast on September 12, 2008
    2008.09.12
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Ike on September 12, 2008 at 1035Z or 6:35 AM EST. At this time the storm was an extremely dangerous category 2 hurricane with sustained winds of 90 knots (103 mph) and a pressure reading of 953 millibars. Hurricane-force winds were extending outward 120 miles from the center, while tropical storm-force winds extend up to 275 miles. Size matters when it comes to hurricanes. Larger storms produce a wider swath of wind damage and stir up the water that create a surge on a longer coastline. With Hurricane Ike, the wind field is exceptionally large and so is the destructive potential for storm surge. Surge flooding up to 25 feet is expected. The cloud cover in this animation is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Ike on September 10, 2008 at 1745 UTC
    2008.09.11
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Ike on September 10, 2008 at 1745 UTC or 1:45PM EST. At this time the storm was a category 2 hurricane with sustained winds of 85 knots (97.75 mph), a pressure reading of 958 millibars, and a diameter of 100 miles. The cloud cover in this animation is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. The colored isosurface uner the clouds show the rain seen by the PR instrument. This surface is colored according to cloud height where yellow represents 10 km thunderclouds and red represents 15 km or more intense thunderclouds. Ike is expected to generate a 10 to 15 foot storm surge along a 100 mile stretch of the Texas Coast from the eye landfall location.
  • Hurricane Ike Strengthens in the Gulf of Mexico on September 10, 2008
    2008.09.10
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Ike on September 10, 2008 as slammed into Cuba . At this time the storm was a category 1 hurricane with sustained winds of 75 knots (86.25 mph) and a pressure reading of 963 millibars. At this time, TRMM's data and aircraft reports confirm the small inner eye is eroding as the outer bands, shown here as red towers, are becoming better defined. This could limit rapid intensity development in the very near term, but the storm is projected to strengthen before it makes landfall. The cloud cover in this animation is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. The colored isosurface uner the clouds show the rain seen by the PR instrument. This surface is colored according to cloud height where yellow represents 10 km thunderclouds and red represents 12 km more intense thunderclouds.
  • Hurricane Ike Slams Cuba on September 8, 2008
    2008.09.08
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Ike on September 8, 2008 as slammed into Cuba . At this time the storm had weakened to a category 2 hurricane with sustained winds of 85 knots (98 mph) and a pressure reading of 960 millibars. Hurricane-force winds were extending outward 60 miles from the center, while tropical storm-force winds extended up to 200 miles from the center. The cloud cover in this animation is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 1.5 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Ike on September 4, 2008
    2008.09.04
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Ike on September 4, 2008 as it strengthened in the Atlantic. At this time the storm was an extremely dangerous category 4 hurricane with sustained winds of 125 knots (143 mph) and a pressure reading of 935 millibars. Hurricane-force winds were extending outward 45 miles from the center, while tropical storm-force winds extend up to 140 miles. The cloud cover in this animation is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Tropical Storm Hanna's Towering Thunderclouds
    2008.09.03
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Storm Hanna on September 1, 2008 at 1418 UTC (10:18 EDT). At this time the storm was a tropical storm with sustained winds of 50 knots (57.5 mph) and a pressure reading of 994 millibars. Three hours later, The National Hurricane Center upgraded this storm to a category 1 hurricane with sustained winds of 70 knots and a pressure reading of 984 millibars. TRMM documented one reason for this rapid intensification - strong thunderstorms with heights of over 17 kilometers (10.5 miles) in the eastern eyewall of this tropical storm. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. The rain structure is colored by the height of the clouds.
  • Hurricane Gustav on August 31, 2008
    2008.09.01
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Gustav on August 31, 2008 as the Gulf Coast braces for the worst. At this time the storm was a category 3 hurricane with sustained winds of 100 knots (115 mph) and a pressure reading of 957 millibars. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar (PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Gustav on August 27, 2008
    2008.08.27
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Gustav on August 27, 2008 as it attacked Haiti. At this time the storm was a category 1 hurricane with sustained winds of 65 knots (75 mph) and a pressure reading of 992 millibars. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Gustav Slams Haiti
    2008.08.26
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Gustav on August 26, 2008 just before it made landfall in Haiti. At this time the storm sustained winds of 75 knots (86 mph) and a pressure reading of 984 millibars. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Tropical Storm Edouard
    2008.08.11
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Storm Edouard on August 5, 2008 as it made landfall in Texas. At this time the storm sustained winds of 55 knots (63 mph). The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Tropical Storm Fay Inundates Florida
    2008.08.11
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Storm Fay on August 20, 2008 at 0345Z as it crossed Florida. At this time the storm sustained winds of 45 knots (52 mph) and a pressure reading of 990 millibars. The storm stalled in this location for 24 hours and brought over 24 inches of rain to Eastern Florida. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • GOES-M
    2008.07.16
    Goes-M is the latest in the fleet of satellites that bring us weather information on a daily basis
  • NASA Scientists Research Global Precipitation
    2007.09.30
    The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is an element of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research program (WCRP). It was established by the WCRP in 1986 with the initial goal of providing monthly mean precipitation data on a 2.5
  • Hurricane Dean on August 21, 2007
    2007.08.21
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Dean on August 21, 2007. At this time the storm was classified as a category two with sustained winds of 90 knots (103.7 mph). The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar (PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Gray represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Dean on August 19, 2007
    2007.08.19
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Dean on August 19, 2007. At this time the storm was classified as a dangerous category four with sustained winds of 125 knots (138 mph). The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Rita Push In
    2007.07.04
    This animation is a simple push in to GOES-based clouds showing Hurricane Rita make its way through the Gulf of Mexico and then inland. This animation was created in support of the 'Exploring Time' show produced by Red Hill Studios and Tom Lucas Productions. For more information go to http://exploringtime.org.
  • NAMMA Aircraft Flights from Cape Verde
    2007.04.23
    The NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (NAMMA) campaign was a field research campaign to study African Easterly waves off the western coast of Africa. A DC-8 aircraft was flown out of the island of Sal, Cape Verde, in August and September 2006, and was outfitted with atmospheric sensors that measured data in this region that could be compared with satellite, balloon, and ground-based sensors to build up a comprehensive picture of the atmosphere in this region. This region is important in that it is one of the primary regions of tropical cyclogenesis, where Atlantic hurricanes form. This animation shows all the flight paths of the DC-8 during this campaign along with the corresponding cloud and satellite data from satellites.
  • Sequence of Clouds, Snow Cover, Sea Ice, Sea Surface Temperature and Biosphere
    2007.03.17
    This animation is part of an NSF-funded, international project, Exploring Time. The two-hour television special, broadcast on the Discovery Channel in the spring of 2007, explores how the world changes over different timescales ... from billionths of seconds to billions of years. This animation portrays a variety of remotely sensed data elements at different temporal resolutions.

    Initially, the animation shows cloud cover in motion over North America in half-hour increments from Nov. 26 to Dec. 7, 2005. The temporal pace quickens to show a 5-day moving average of daily MODIS snow cover along with daily AMSR-E sea ice from Dec. 7, 2005 to Mar. 15, 2006. As the view swings south over the Gulf of Mexico, the AMSR-E Sea Surface Temperature reveals warming ocean temperatures from March through August, 2006. As it passes over the Atlantic Ocean, the biosphere fades into view, showing both chlorophyll concentration in the ocean along with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index over the land areas. The biosphere animates over time while the view pans over northern Africa and Europe, showing data collected from September 2002 through February 2006.

    This program was also broadcast in Japan through a partnership with the NHK international broadcasting service and in France through a partnership with the ARTE television network.

  • 27 Storms: Arlene to Zeta
    2006.05.31
    Many records were broken during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season including the most hurricanes ever, the most category 5 hurricanes, and the most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic as measured by atmospheric pressure. This visualization shows all 27 named storms that formed in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season and examines some of the conditions that made hurricane formation so favorable.

    The animation begins by showing the regions of warm water that are favorable for storm development advancing northward through the peak of hurricane season and then receding as the waters cool. The thermal energy in these warm waters powers the hurricanes. Strong shearing winds in the troposphere can disrupt developing young storms, but measurements indicate that there was very little shearing wind activity in 2005 to impede storm formation.

    Sea surface temperatures, clouds, storm tracks, and hurricane category labels are shown as the hurricane season progresses.

    This visualization shows some of the actual data that NASA and NOAA satellites measured in 2005 — data used to predict the paths and intensities of hurricanes. Satellite data play a vital role in helping us understand the land, ocean, and atmosphere systems that have such dramatic effects on our lives.

    NOTE: This animation shows the named storms from the 2005 hurricane season. During a re-analysis of 2005, NOAA's Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center determined that a short-lived subtropcial storm developed near the Azores Islands in late September, increasing the 2005 tropical storm count from 27 to 28. This storm was not named and is not shown in this animation.

    '27 Storms: Arlene to Zeta' played in the SIGGRAPH 2007 Computer Animation Festival in August 2007. It was also a finalist in the 2006 NSF Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge.

  • A Short Tour of the Cryosphere
    2006.05.20
    A newer version of this animation is available here.

    This narrated, 5-minute animation shows a wealth of data collected from satellite observations of the cryosphere and the impact that recent cryospheric changes are making on our planet. This is a shorter version of a narrated, 7 1/2 minute animation entitled 'A Tour of the Cryosphere'.

    See the above link for a detailed description of the full animation.

    Two sections have been removed from the original animation: one showing a flyby of the South Pole station and glaciers feeding the Ross Ice Shelf and one showing solar data related to the Earth's energy balance.

    For more information on the data sets used in this visualization, visit NASA's EOS DAAC website.

  • 2005 Hurricanes: Clouds and Sea Surface Temperature
    2006.04.12
    This visualization shows sea surface temperatures during most of the 2005 hurricane season. Overlaid are infrared cloud data, storm track data, and storm name labels. Warm ocean waters provide the heat energy that fuels hurricanes. Notice the correspondence between the storm tracks and the sea surface temperature response; this is particulary noticeable for hurricanes Dennis, Emily, and Katrina, where the hurricanes churn up the ocean so that cooler water rises to the surface. This version shows the entire Atlantic hurricane region and depicts all of the 2005 hurricanes except Zeta, which appeared at the very end of the year.
  • Tropical Cyclone Larry on March 19, 2006
    2006.03.24
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Cyclone Larry on March 19, 2006 at 1812Z. At this time the storm was classified as a dangerous category four with sustained winds of 100 knots (115 mph) and a pressure reading of 944mb. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS). The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Wilma MODIS Progression
    2005.11.05
    A progression of Hurricane Wilma from 10/19/05 to 10/25/05 using Aqua/MODIS, Terra/MODIS and NOAA/GOES data. Hurricane Wilma followed in the wake of Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita through the Gulf of Mexico.
  • Hurricane Wilma — SSTs and Clouds
    2005.10.21
    This visualization shows sea surface temperatures and clouds for Hurricane Wilma. The data is from October 15 through 20, 2005. The colors on the ocean represent the sea surface temperatures, and satellite images of the hurricane clouds are laid over the temperatures to clearly show the hurricane positions. Orange and red depict regions that are 82 degrees F and higher, where the ocean is warm enough for hurricanes to form. Hurricane winds are sustained by the heat energy of the ocean, so the ocean is cooled as the hurricane passes and the energy is extracted to power the winds. The sea surface temperatures are 3-day moving averages based on the AMSR-E instrument on the Aqua satellite, while the cloud images were taken by the Imager on the GOES-12 satellite.
  • Hurricane Wilma MODIS Close-Up
    2005.10.20
    The Terra/MODIS and NOAA/GOES instruments captured this view of Hurricane Wilma on October 19, 2005 at 1640Z. At this time, Hurricane Wilma had a record minimum central pressure of 882 millibars and sustained winds of 150 knots (172 mph). Hurricane Wilma is the strongest, most intense Atlantic Hurricane in terms of barometric pressure and the most rapidly strengthening Atlantic storm on record.
  • Hurricane Wilma from TRMM: October 17, 2005
    2005.10.19
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Wilma on October 17, 2005 at 1754Z. At this time the storm was classified as a Tropical Storm with a minimum pressure of 997 mb, and sustained winds of 45 knots. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • TRMM Observes Hurricane Wilma on October 19, 2005
    2005.10.19
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Wilma on October 19, 2005 at 1740Z. At this time the storm was classified as the most dangerous category five. Wilma had record low minimum pressure readings of 893 mb and sustained winds of 140 knots (161 mph). The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • NASA's TRMM Satellite Captures Hurricane Wilma Data on October 20, 2005
    2005.10.19
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Wilma on October 20, 2005 at 0152Z. At this time the storm was classified as the most dangerous category five. Wilma had record low minimum pressure readings of 892 mb and sustained winds of 140 knots. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Wilma on October 20, 2005
    2005.10.19
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Wilma on October 20, 2005 at 1645Z. At this time the storm was classified as a dangerous category four with sustained winds of 125 knots (138 mph). The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Named Storms from the 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season (Wide Shot)
    2005.10.17
    An updated version of this visualization is available. Please see animation identification number 3354.

    This visualization shows sea surface temperatures during most of the 2005 hurricane season. Overlaid are infrared cloud data, storm track data, and storm name labels. Ocean temperatures are the fuel that drive hurricanes. Notice the correspondence between the storm tracks and the sea surface temperature response; this is particulary noticeable for hurricanes Dennis, Emily, and Katrina. This versions shows a wide view of the Gulf of Mexico and Western Atlantic Ocean.

    This visualization includes all of the named storms from Arlene though Wilma; however, Vince is not within the camera's view since it was in the Portugal/Spain region. Wilma tied the record for the most named Atlantic tropical storms in recorded history; and, the list of seleced names for this season is exhausted. Other storms that have formed after Wilma, have been named after the Greek alphabet.

  • GOES-12 Imagery of Hurricane Katrina: Longwave Infrared Close-up (WMS)
    2005.10.05
    The GOES-12 satellite sits at 75 degrees west longitude at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers over the equator, in geosynchronous orbit. At this position its Imager instrument takes pictures of cloud patterns in several wavelengths for all of North and South America, a primary measurement used in weather forecasting. The Imager takes a pattern of pictures of parts of the Earth in several wavelengths all day, measurements that are vital in weather forecasting. This animation shows a four-day sequence of GOES-12 images in the longwave infrared wavelengths, from 10.2 to 11.2 microns, during the period that Hurricane Katrina passed through the Gulf of Mexico. This wavelength band is the most common one for observing cloud motions and severe storms throughout the day and night. Since GOES-12 takes images most often over the United States (every 5 to 10 minutes), the motion of the clouds in this close-up of the southeast US is very smooth.
  • GOES-12 Imagery of Hurricane Katrina: Full Disk Visible (WMS)
    2005.10.05
    The GOES-12 satellite sits at 75 degrees west longitude at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers over the equator, in geosynchronous orbit. At this position its Imager instrument takes pictures of cloud patterns in several wavelengths for all of North and South America, a primary measurement used in weather forecasting. Every three hours the Imager takes a picture of the full disk of the Earth. This animation shows a sequence of these full disk images in the visible wavelengths, 0.52 to 0.72 microns, during the period that Hurricane Katrina passed through the Gulf of Mexico. This wavelength band clearly shows the day-night cycle since the Earth is dark at night in the visible wavelengths.
  • GOES-12 Imagery of Hurricane Katrina: Full Disk Shortwave Infrared (WMS)
    2005.10.05
    The GOES-12 satellite sits at 75 degrees west longitude at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers over the equator, in geosynchronous orbit. At this position its Imager instrument takes pictures of cloud patterns in several wavelengths for all of North and South America, a primary measurement used in weather forecasting. Every three hours the Imager takes a picture of the full disk of the Earth. This animation shows a sequence of these full disk images in the shortwave infrared wavelengths, 3.78 to 4.03 microns, during the period that Hurricane Katrina passed through the Gulf of Mexico. This wavelength band shows the day-night cycle, and is useful for identifying fog at night and discriminating between water clouds and snow or ice clouds during the daytime.
  • GOES-12 Imagery of Hurricane Katrina: Full Disk Water Vapor (WMS)
    2005.10.05
    The GOES-12 satellite sits at 75 degrees west longitude at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers over the equator, in geosynchronous orbit. At this position its Imager instrument takes pictures of cloud patterns in several wavelengths for all of North and South America, a primary measurement used in weather forecasting. Every three hours the Imager takes a picture of the full disk of the Earth. This animation shows a sequence of these full disk images in the 6.47 to 7.02 micron wavelength band, during the period that Hurricane Katrina passed through the Gulf of Mexico. This wavelength band is useful for estimating mid-level water vapor content and for observing atmospheric motion in that level.
  • GOES-12 Imagery of Hurricane Katrina: Full Disk Longwave Infrared (WMS)
    2005.10.05
    The GOES-12 satellite sits at 75 degrees west longitude at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers over the equator, in geosynchronous orbit. At this position its Imager instrument takes pictures of cloud patterns in several wavelengths for all of North and South America, a primary measurement used in weather forecasting. Every three hours the Imager takes a picture of the full disk of the Earth. This animation shows a sequence of these full disk images in the longwave infrared wavelengths, from 10.2 to 11.2 microns, during the period that Hurricane Katrina passed through the Gulf of Mexico. This wavelength band is the most common one for observing cloud motions and severe storms throughout the day and night.
  • GOES-12 Imagery of Hurricane Katrina: Full Disk Lower Level Temperature (WMS)
    2005.10.05
    The GOES-12 satellite sits at 75 degrees west longitude at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers over the equator, in geosynchronous orbit. At this position its Imager instrument takes pictures of cloud patterns in several wavelengths for all of North and South America, a primary measurement used in weather forecasting. Every three hours the Imager takes a picture of the full disk of the Earth. This animation shows a sequence of these full disk images in the wavelength band from 12.9 to 13.8 microns, during the period that Hurricane Katrina passed through the Gulf of Mexico. This wavelength band is useful for determining cloud characteristics such as cloud top pressure.
  • GOES-10 Imagery of Hurricane Katrina: Full Disk Longwave Infrared (WMS)
    2005.10.05
    The GOES-10 satellite sits at 135 degrees west longitude at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers over the equator, in geosynchronous orbit. At this position its Imager instrument takes pictures of cloud patterns in several wavelengths for the Pacific Ocean, a primary measurement used in weather forecasting. Every three hours the Imager takes a picture of the full disk of the Earth. This animation shows a sequence of these full disk images in the longwave infrared wavelengths, from 10.2 to 11.2 microns, during the period that Hurricane Katrina passed through the Gulf of Mexico. This wavelength band is the most common one for observing cloud motions and severe storms throughout the day and night.
  • GOES-12 Imagery of Hurricane Katrina: Longwave Infrared Overview (WMS)
    2005.10.05
    The GOES-12 satellite sits at 75 degrees west longitude at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers over the equator, in geosynchronous orbit. At this position its Imager instrument takes pictures of cloud patterns in several wavelengths for all of North and South America, a primary measurement used in weather forecasting. The Imager takes a pattern of pictures of parts of the Earth in several wavelengths all day, measurements that are vital in weather forecasting. This animation shows a four-day sequence of GOES-12 images in the longwave infrared wavelengths, from 10.2 to 11.2 microns, during the period that Hurricane Katrina passed through the Gulf of Mexico. This wavelength band is the most common one for observing cloud motions and severe storms throughout the day and night. Note that most of the images are taken over the United States (about every 5 minutes) with full disk images every 3 hours and several specific images over South America every day.
  • GOES-12 Imagery of Hurricane Katrina: Longwave Infrared Progression (WMS)
    2005.10.05
    The GOES-12 satellite sits at 75 degrees west longitude at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers over the equator, in geosynchronous orbit. At this position its Imager instrument takes pictures of cloud patterns in several wavelengths for all of North and South America, a primary measurement used in weather forecasting. The Imager takes a pattern of pictures of parts of the Earth in several wavelengths all day, measurements that are vital in weather forecasting. This animation shows a four-day sequence of GOES-12 images in the longwave infrared wavelengths, from 10.2 to 11.2 microns, during the period that Hurricane Katrina passed through the Gulf of Mexico. This wavelength band is the most common one for observing cloud motions and severe storms throughout the day and night. Note that most of the images are taken over the United States (about every 5 minutes) with full disk images every 3 hours and several specific images over South America every day. In this animation, new images are placed over old images rather than replacing them, so different parts of the image update at different times as measurements are taken.
  • Hurricane Katrina Rain Accumulation (WMS)
    2005.10.05
    This animation shows rain accumulation from Hurricane Katrina from August 23 through 30, 2005 based on data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis. Satellite cloud data from NOAA/GOES is overlaid for context. The accumulation is shown in colors ranging from green (less than 30 mm of rain) through red (80 mm or more). The TRMM satellite, using the world's only spaceborne rain radar and other microwave instruments, measures rainfall over the ocean.
  • Hurricane Katrina Sea Surface Temperature (WMS)
    2005.10.05
    This visualization shows the cold water trail left by Hurricane Katrina. The data is from August 23 through 30, 2005. The colors on the ocean represent the sea surface temperatures, and satellite images of the hurricane clouds are laid over the temperatures to clearly show the hurricane positions. Orange and red depict regions that are 82 degrees F and higher, where the ocean is warm enough for hurricanes to form. Hurricane winds are sustained by the heat energy of the ocean, so the ocean is cooled as the hurricane passes and the energy is extracted to power the winds. The sea surface temperatures are 3-day moving averages based on the AMSR-E instrument on the Aqua satellite, while the cloud images were taken by the Imager on the GOES-12 satellite.
  • GOES-12 Imagery of Hurricane Katrina: Visible Close-up (WMS)
    2005.10.05
    The GOES-12 satellite sits at 75 degrees west longitude at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers over the equator, in geosynchronous orbit. At this position its Imager instrument takes pictures of cloud patterns in several wavelengths for all of North and South America, a primary measurement used in weather forecasting. The Imager takes a pattern of pictures of parts of the Earth in several wavelengths all day, measurements that are vital in weather forecasting. This animation shows a daily sequence of GOES-12 images in the visible wavelengths, from 0.52 to 0.72 microns, during the period that Hurricane Katrina passed through the Gulf of Mexico. At one kilometer resolution, the visible band measurement is the highest resolution data from the Imager, which accounts for the very high level of detail in these images. For this animation, the cloud data was extracted from GOES image and laid over a background color image of the southeast United States.
  • Aqua MODIS Imagery of Hurricane Katrina (WMS)
    2005.10.05
    Low earth-orbiting satellites, such as Aqua, usually see any place on Earth no more than once a day. This daily sequence of color images from the MODIS instrument on Aqua shows the Gulf of Mexico during the period of Hurricane Katrina, from August 23 to August 30, 2005. The gaps in the MODIS imagery occur between successive orbits, about 90 minutes apart, and are filled in in this animation using high-resolution visible imagery from GOES-12.
  • Hurricane Rita MODIS Progression
    2005.09.30
    A progression of Hurricane Rita from 9/19/05 to 9/24/05 using Aqua/MODIS and NOAA/GOES data. Hurricane Rita followed in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, through the Gulf of Mexico, threatening Louisiana residents yet again. Although the city of New Orleans was mostly spared from this second Gulf hurricane, large areas of rural Texas and Louisiana were flooded.
  • Hurricane Rita Rain Accumulation
    2005.09.27
    This animation shows rain accumulation from Hurricane Rita from September 18 through 25, 2005 based on data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis. Satellite cloud data from NOAA/GOES is overlaid for context. The accumulation is shown in colors ranging from green (less than 30 mm of rain) through red (80 mm or more). The TRMM satellite, using the world's only spaceborne rain radar and other microwave instruments, measures rainfall over the ocean.
  • Hurricane Wilma Rain Accumulation
    2005.09.27
    This animation shows rain accumulation from Hurricane Wilma from October 15 through 25, 2005 based on data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis. Satellite cloud data from NOAA/GOES is overlaid for context. The accumulation is shown in colors ranging from green (less than 30 mm of rain) through red (80 mm or more). The TRMM satellite, using the world's only spaceborne rain radar and other microwave instruments, measures rainfall over the ocean.
  • Hurricane Rita from TRMM: September 23, 2005
    2005.09.23
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Rita on September 23, 2005 at 0852Z. At this time the storm was a category 4 hurricane with a minimum pressure of 924 mb, and sustained winds of 120 knots. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI). It looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Rita from TRMM: September 22, 2005
    2005.09.22
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Rita on September 22, 2005 at 0810Z. At this time the storm was the most destructive category 5 hurricane with a minimum pressure of 898mb, sustained winds of 150 knots, and a 15 nautical mile eye diameter. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI). It looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Rita from TRMM: September 20, 2005
    2005.09.21
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft is used to understand Hurricane Rita. TRMM observed this view of Hurricane Rita just before the storm made landfall on September 20, 2005. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI). It looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Rita from TRMM: September 21, 2005
    2005.09.21
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft is used to understand Hurricane Rita. TRMM observed this view of Hurricane Rita on September 21, 2005 at 0909Z. At this time the storm was a category 3 hurricane with a minimum pressure of 956mb, sustained winds of 105 knots, and a 25 nautical mile eye diameter. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI). It looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Katrina GOES Clouds
    2005.09.21
    This animation shows Hurricane Katrina as seen by NOAA/GOES-12 infrared band from from August 23 through 30, 2005.
  • Anatomy of Hurricane Isabel
    2005.09.21
    This visualization shows several data sets from Hurricane Isabel. Sea surface temperature (SST) as seen by Aqua/AMSR-E is represented by the colors in the ocean. Red and yellow are waters above 82 degrees Fahrenheit which is favorable for hurricane formation. Sea surface winds as seen by QuikSCAT are represented by the arrows over the SSTs. Internal rain structure as seen by TRMM/PR is represented by the semi-transparent surfaces close to the ocean surface. Isabel's wam hurricane core as seen by GOES/AMSU is represented by the ellipsoid shapes above the rain structure. This visualizaiton was intended as a proof of concept; but has been released due to its popularity.
  • Hurricane Katrina from TRMM: August 29, 2005
    2005.09.14
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft is used to understand Hurricane Katrina. TRMM observed this view of Hurricane Katrina just before the storm made landfall on August 29, 2005. Katrina remains an extremely large and dangerous hurricane. Hurricane force winds extend outward up to 105 miles from the storm's center. Coastal storm surge flooding of 18 to 22 feet above normal tide levels are expected. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI). It looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Ophelia from TRMM: September 11, 2005 1648 Zulu
    2005.09.12
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Ophelia on September 11, 2005. At the time the data was taken, the hurricane was a Category 1 hurricane with winds of 70 KT. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI). It looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure.
  • Hurricane Ophelia from TRMM: September 11, 2005 1826 Zulu
    2005.09.12
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Ophelia on September 11, 2005 at 1826 Zulu. At the time the data was taken, the hurricane was a Category 1 hurricane located 250 miles east-southeast of Charleston, South Carolina and about 255 miles south of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. The storm had sustained winds of 75 mph. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI). It looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure.
  • Sea Surface Temperature, Clouds, and Tropical Depression/Storm/Hurricane Tracks from June 1, 2005 to August 29, 2005
    2005.09.09
    This visualization shows sea surface temperatures during the early part of the 2005 hurricane season. Overlaid are infrared cloud data and storm track data. Ocean temperatures are the fuel that drive hurricanes. Notice the correspondence between the storm tracks and the sea surface temperature response; this is particulary noticeable for hurricanes Dennis, Emily, and Katrina.
  • Hurricane Katrina Rain Accumulation
    2005.09.08
    This animation shows rain accumulation from Hurricane Katrina from August 23 through 30, 2005 based on data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis. Satellite cloud data from NOAA/GOES is overlaid for context. The accumulation is shown in colors ranging from green (less than 30 mm of rain) through red (80 mm or more). The TRMM satellite, using the world's only spaceborne rain radar and other microwave instruments, measures rainfall over the ocean.
  • Hurricane Katrina Sea Surface Temperature
    2005.09.08
    This visualization shows the cold water trail left by Hurricane Katrina. The data is from August 23 through 30, 2005. The colors on the ocean represent the sea surface temperatures, and satellite images of the hurricane clouds are laid over the temperatures to clearly show the hurricane positions. Orange and red depict regions that are 82 degrees F and higher, where the ocean is warm enough for hurricanes to form. Hurricane winds are sustained by the heat energy of the ocean, so the ocean is cooled as the hurricane passes and the energy is extracted to power the winds. The sea surface temperatures are 3-day moving averages based on the AMSR-E instrument on the Aqua satellite, while the cloud images were taken by the Imager on the GOES-12 satellite.
  • Hurricane Rita Sea Surface Temperature and Clouds
    2005.09.08
    This visualization shows the sea surface temperatures during Hurricane Rita. The data is from Septemeber 17 through 22, 2005. The colors on the ocean represent the sea surface temperatures, and satellite images of the hurricane clouds are laid over the temperatures to clearly show the hurricane positions. Orange and red depict regions that are 82 degrees F and higher, where the ocean is warm enough for hurricanes to form. Hurricane winds are sustained by the heat energy of the ocean, so the ocean is cooled as the hurricane passes and the energy is extracted to power the winds. The sea surface temperatures are 3-day moving averages based on the AMSR-E instrument on the Aqua satellite, while the cloud images were taken by the Imager on the GOES-12 satellite.
  • Hurricane Katrina from TRMM: August 28, 2005
    2005.09.01
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Katrina on August 28, 2005. At the time the data was taken, the hurricane was a Category 5 hurricane, the most destructive and deadly. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI). It looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure.
  • Hurricane Katrina from TRMM: August 25, 2005
    2005.08.30
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft is used to understand Hurricane Katrina. TRMM observed this view of Hurricane Katrina just before the storm made landfall on August 25, 2005. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI). It looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Emily: July 20, 2005
    2005.08.30
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft is used to understand Hurricane Emily. TRMM observed this view of Hurricane Emily just before the storm made landfall on July 20, 2005. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI). It looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Dennis
    2005.07.11
    The formation of Hurricane Dennis on July 5 made that the earliest date on record that four named storms formed in the Atlantic basin. Dennis proved to be a powerful and destructive storm in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. It crossed over Cuba on July 8 and 9, leaving at least 10 dead, and caused additional deaths in Haiti. After re-emerging over open water, Dennis re-strengthened into a dangerous Category 4 hurricane with top wind speeds of 233 kilometers per hour (145 mph). The storm passed within 90 kilometers (55 miles) of Pensacola, Florida, and hit land about 80 kilometers (50 miles) east of where Hurricane Ivan struck in September, 2004. A large storm surge of more than 10 feet was created in certain areas, and many homes and businesses in low-lying areas were flooded.
  • Outgoing Shortwave Flux Compared to Clouds (WMS)
    2005.06.21
    The Earth's climate is determined by energy transfer from the sun to the Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. As the Earth rotates, the sun lights up only part of the Earth at a time, and some of that incoming solar energy is reflected and some is absorbed, depending on type of area it lights. The amount of reflection and absorption is critical to the climate. An instrument named CERES orbits the Earth every 99 minutes and measures the reflected solar energy. This animation shows the reflected solar radiation measured by CERES during 29 orbits on June 20 and 21 of 2003 over infrared cloud images for the same period. Reflected solar radiation is shortwave radiation, and the most intense reflection comes from clouds.
  • Outgoing Longwave Flux Compared to Clouds (WMS)
    2005.06.21
    The Earth's climate is determined by energy transfer from the sun to the Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. As the Earth rotates, the sun lights up only part of the Earth at a time, and some of that incoming solar energy is reflected and some is absorbed, depending on type of area it lights. The amount of reflection and absorption is critical to the climate. An instrument named CERES orbits the Earth every 99 minutes and measures the reflected solar energy. This animation shows the outgoing thermal radiation measured by CERES during 29 orbits on June 20 and 21 of 2003 over global infrared cloud images. Thermal radiation is longwave radiation and depends on the temperature of the earth, with the most intense radiation coming from the warmest regions and the least from cold clouds in the atmosphere. Although cold clouds and the cold Antarctic night regions can be seen in this data, the Earth radiates pretty uniformly in the longwave bands because the atmosphere distributes the heat of the sun to the whole planet.
  • Net Radiation Flux Compared to Clouds (WMS)
    2005.06.21
    The Earth's climate is determined by energy transfer from the sun to the Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. As the Earth rotates, the sun lights up only part of the Earth at a time, and some of that incoming solar energy is reflected and some is absorbed, depending on type of area it lights. The amount of reflection and absorption is critical to the climate. An instrument named CERES orbits the Earth every 99 minutes and measures the reflected solar energy. This animation shows the net radiation flux within view of CERES during 29 orbits on June 20 and 21 of 2003. The net flux is the incoming solar flux minus the outgoing reflected (shortwave) and thermal (longwave) radiation. If the flux in a region is positive, the Earth is being warmed by the sun in that region, while cooling regions have a negative flux. It is clear from the animation that the most intensive heating occurs in ocean regions with few clouds, while the second most intense are cloud-free regions over vegetated land areas. Deserts, cloudy regions, and ice caps all reflect enough solar radiation to reduce the amount of heating. Regions of night are, of course, cooling regions because there is no incoming flux at all.
  • Incoming Solar Flux Compared to Clouds (WMS)
    2005.06.21
    The Earth's climate is determined by energy transfer from the sun to the Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. As the Earth rotates, the sun lights up only part of the Earth at a time, and some of that incoming solar energy is reflected and some is absorbed, depending on type of area it lights. The amount of reflection and absorption is critical to the climate. An instrument named CERES orbits the Earth every 99 minutes and measures the reflected solar energy. This animation shows the incoming solar radiation within view of CERES during 29 orbits on June 20 and 21 of 2003. Because this is incoming solar flux, its magnitude only depends on the position of the sun, and, because the orbit is synchronized with the sun, the orbit crosses the equator in the daylight at about 1:30 PM local time on every orbit. This data is not actually measured from CERES, but is calculated to compare with the outgoing radiation that CERES does measure. Note that the infrared cloud image shown under the solar data shows high infrared as dark (land) and low infrared as light (clouds).
  • Scene Identification Compared to Clouds (WMS)
    2005.06.21
    The Earth's climate is determined by energy transfer from the sun to the Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. As the Earth rotates, the sun lights up only part of the Earth at a time, and some of that incoming solar energy is reflected and some is absorbed, depending on type of area it lights. The amount of reflection and absorption is critical to the climate. An instrument named CERES orbits the Earth every 99 minutes and measures the reflected solar energy. This animation shows the scene identification as measured by CERES during 29 orbits on June 20 and 21 of 2003. By comparing the incoming solar radiation with the outgoing reflected and thermal radiation, it is possible to identify the type of area being viewed, whether it be land, clouds, ocean, or ice. This scene identification is used together with the radiation flux measurements to build up a complete picture of the Earth's energy budget over time.
  • Hurricane Ivan Rainfall Structure with Cloud Overlay on September 16, 2004
    2005.06.09
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft is used by meteorologists to understand Hurricane Ivan. TRMM observed this view of Hurricane Ivan as the storm made landfall on September 16, 2004. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS). The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI). It looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Chlorophyll Concentration Shows Oceanographic Patterns in Great Barrier Reef
    2005.03.17
    Coral bleaching may be one of the greatest threats to the Great Barrier Reef. Coral bleaching is a stress response that often occurs when the surrounding waters become too warm for the corals. In the stressful situation, the corals expel their brownish zooxanthellae and lose their color. Zooxanthellae are unicellular yellow-brown algae that make it possible for the corals to grow and reproduce quickly enough to create reefs. Without the zooxanthellae, the coral cannot obtain sufficient nourishment. If conditions remain difficult, the corals may die. Major coral bleaching incidents on the Great Barrier Reef in 1998 and 2002 led to widespread death of corals in some areas. Researchers in the Barrier reef of Australia are using NASA's resources to help identify troubled coral.
  • Hurricane Ivan Rainfall Structure seen by TRMM on September 16, 2004
    2004.09.20
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft is used by meteorologists to understand Hurricane Ivan. TRMM snapped this view of Hurricane Ivan on September 15, 2004, just before the storm strikes land. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS). The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI). It looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Isabel: Under the Hood (background only)
    2004.09.08
    This visualization shows NOAA/GOES infrared (IR) data of Hurricane Isabel as it makes its way across the Atlantic towards landfall. The track of Isabel is shown using a color code to indicate the storm's category: green=tropical depression, yellow=tropical storm, red=category 1, light red=category 2, purple=category 3, light purple=category4, white=category 5. This visualization is the background for animation ID 2996.
  • Hurricane Isabel: Under the Hood (with popout boxes)
    2004.09.08
    This visualization shows NOAA/GOES infrared (IR) data of Hurricane Isabel as it makes its way across the Atlantic towards landfall. The track of Isabel is shown using a color code to indicate the storm's category: green=tropical depression, yellow=tropical storm, red=category 1, light red=category 2, purple=category 3, light purple=category 4, white=category 5. The inset box on the left shows how the distribution of rainfall (circular sturctures below) and heat inside the storm (oblong structures above) fluctuated dramatically as the storm changed intensities. The warm core of the hurricane was the engine that drove the storm, allowing it to draw up energy from the ocean, gathering strength and size. The inset box to the right shows vital statistics about the hurricane including wind speed, pressure, etc. The background only of this animation (without the inset boxes) can be found under animation 2995.
  • Hurricane Isabel: Under the Hood (PR and AMSU only)
    2004.09.08
    This visualization is an inset from animation 2996. It shows how the distribution of Hurricane Isabel's rainfall (circular sturctures below) and heat inside the storm (oblong structures above) fluctuated dramatically as the storm changed intensities. The warm core of the hurricane was the engine that drove the storm, allowing it to draw up energy from the ocean, gathering strength and size.
  • Isabel's Phytoplankton Trail with GOES
    2004.06.16
    As Hurricane Isabel passed over the Atlantic it left a trail of phytoplankton near the ocean surface. The GOES data in this animation tracks the progression of the hurricane in 6 hour increments, while the underlying SeaWiFS data shows the chlorophyll trail on September 13th and September 18th, 2003. The lighter blue areas in the hurricane's wake represent higher amounts of chlorophyll.
  • Global Infrared Cloud Cover, September 2001 (WMS)
    2004.02.11
    This animation is a mosaic of cloud cover data taken by several different satellites in the infrared band. One of the most prominent cloud features during this time was Hurricane Erin near the Atlantic coast of the United States.
  • Infrared Cloud Cover over the Atlantic Ocean, September 2001 (WMS)
    2004.02.11
    This animation is a mosaic of cloud cover data taken by several different satellites in the infrared band. Instead of showing a global composite, it is cropped to highlight the Atlantic Ocean. One of the most prominent cloud features during this time was Hurricane Erin.
  • GOES Imagery of Hurricane Luis (WMS)
    2004.02.11
    On September 6, 1995, Hurricane Luis was a Category 4 hurricane located about 250 kilometers northeast of Puerto Rico. GOES-9, a new weather satellite in geostationary orbit, was undergoing a check-out period and tested a new, rapid scanning capability by taking high-resolution visible images of Luis at 22 images per hour, much more rapid than the normal rate of one image every 15 minutes. These images clearly show a number of hurricane features that had been hard to observe before, including the evolution of the eyewall structures and small-scale vortex features within the eye. It is also possible to see the formation of the new hurricane arm to the southeast of the eye. This arm is marked by the formation of clouds in the bubbling regions that indicate intense updrafts. The island of Puerto Rico can only be seen as a stationary disturbance under the bright white cloudbank to the southwest of the eye of the hurricane.
  • Cold Water Trails from Hurricanes Fabian and Isabel (WMS)
    2004.02.11
    This visualization shows the cold water trails left first by Hurricanes Fabian and then by Hurricane Isabel in the Atlantic Ocean from August 27, 2003 through September 23, 2003. The colors on the ocean represent the sea surface temperatures, and satellite images of the hurricane clouds are laid over the temperatures to clearly show the hurricane positions. Orange and red depict regions that are 82 degrees F and higher, where the ocean is warm enough for hurricanes to form. Hurricane winds are sustained by the heat energy of the ocean, so the ocean is cooled as the hurricane passes and the energy is extracted to power the winds. A hurricane can experience a dramatic reduction in wind speed when it crosses the cold track of a previous hurricane. However, in this case, the cold water track from Fabian warmed up before Isabel crossed it, so Isabel's winds did not decrease. The sea surface temperatures were measured by the AMSR-E instrument on the Aqua satellite, while the cloud images were taken by the Imager on the GOES-12 satellite.
  • Cold Water Trails from Hurricanes Fabian and Isabel (WMS)
    2004.02.11
    This visualization shows the cold water trails left first by Hurricanes Fabian and then by Hurricane Isabel in the Atlantic Ocean from August 27, 2003 through September 23, 2003. The colors on the ocean represent the sea surface temperatures, and satellite images of the hurricane clouds are laid over the temperatures to clearly show the hurricane positions. Orange and red depict regions that are 82 degrees F and higher, where the ocean is warm enough for hurricanes to form. Hurricane winds are sustained by the heat energy of the ocean, so the ocean is cooled as the hurricane passes and the energy is extracted to power the winds. A hurricane can experience a dramatic reduction in wind speed when it crosses the cold track of a previous hurricane. However, in this case, the cold water track from Fabian warmed up before Isabel crossed it, so Isabel's winds did not decrease. The sea surface temperatures were measured by the AMSR-E instrument on the Aqua satellite, while the cloud images were taken by the Imager on the GOES-12 satellite.
  • Satellite Imagery of Hurricane Dennis (WMS)
    2004.02.10
    Hurricane Dennis started as a tropical depression on August 23, 1999, became a tropical storm on August 24, and was classified as a hurricane early on August 26, near the Bahamas. From August 26 through August 31, Dennis proceeded up the coast of the United States until it stalled off the coast of North Carolina for four days because the pressure trough that was pushing it out to sea left it behind. This animation shows images of Dennis during its hurricane period from August 26 through August 31, 1999, when the stall began. The images were taken by the GOES-8 satellite, a weather satellite in geostationary orbit above the western hemisphere. The continuous white cloud progression came from infrared images from GOES, and the yellowish clouds that come and go with the daylight came from data taken in the visible spectrum, also from GOES. The GOES images were not taken at regular times, so the hurricane appears to slow down when the time between images gets small and speed up when the time between images gets large.
  • ViSBARD: Insights into the Sun-Earth Connection
    2003.12.03
    ViSBARD (Visual System for Browsing, Analysis, and Retrieval of Data) is a data analysis application that brings together measurements from collections of spacecraft near the Earth or throughout the heliosphere In this visualization created from ViSBARD screenshots, we see the magnetic field as measured from six different satellites. The position of each spacecraft is marked by a small color glyph (ACE = yellow, Cluster = dark blue, Geotail = green, GOES 10 = red, Polar = light blue, Wind = purple). The direction of the arrow signifies the direction of the magnetic field while the color represents the intensity (red being the highest, blue the lowest). The magnetic pole of the Earth is in yellow, and it rotates properly as the animation proceeds. This view of the magnetic storm shows highly disturbed fields at geosynchronous orbit (GOES), many crossings of the 'magnetotail current sheet' where the field changes sign and points at the opposite pole of the Earth, close encounters with the Earth (large red fields that are truncated to keep the arrows from becoming huge), and the entry from the back of the picture of Wind and Geotail through the bow shock (wire-frame) and magnetopause (sometimes visible as a transparent surface).
  • Hurricane Isabel Prepares to Make Landfall in North Carolina, September 17, 2003
    2003.09.30
    This animation is of Hurricane Isabel on September 17, 2003 as it barrels toward the East Coast of the United States. At this time, Isabel was packing winds of 115 MPH and is classified as a Category 3 storm. The animation peels away the cloud layer and reveals the storm's rain structure. The yellow isosurface represents areas where at least 0.5 inches ofrain fell per hour. The green isosurface show 1.0 inches of rain per hour and red displays where more than 2 inches of rain fell per hour.
  • Hurricane Isabel Batters North Carolina, September 18, 2003
    2003.09.30
    This animation is of Hurricane Isabel on September 18, 2003 as it barrels toward the East Coast of the United States. At this time, Isabel waspacking winds of 105 MPH and was downgraded to a Category 2 storm. The animation peels away the cloud layer and reveals the storm's rain structure. The yellow isosurface represents areas where at least 0.5 inches ofrain fell per hour. The green isosurface show 1.0 inches of rain per hour and red displays where more than 2 inches of rain fell per hour.
  • Recipe of a Hurricane (Part 1) - Initial Tropical Disturbance (Match Rendered)
    2003.09.30
    This visualization was created in support of the 'Recipe for a Hurricane' live shot campaign. This visualization was match-frame rendered to another visualization showing sea surface temperature.
  • Recipe of a Hurricane (Part 2) — Clouds and Isosurfaces (Match Rendered)
    2003.09.30
    This visualization was created in support of the 'Recipe for a Hurricane' live shot campaign. This is a visualization of Hurricane Erin on September 10, 2001. This is the main section of the visualization that shows the GOES and TRMM/VIRS based cloud tops (extruded), the TRMM/PR based rain isosurface, and the CAMEX-4/dropsonde-based heat isosurface. This visualization was match-frame rendered to two other visualizations (winds and isosurfaces) and was intended to be shown edited together.
  • Recipe of a Hurricane - Spin Around Clouds and Isosurfaces
    2003.09.30
    This visualization was created in support of the 'Recipe for a Hurricane' live shot campaign. This is a visualization of hurricane Erin on September 10, 2001. This version of the visualization is a slow spin around the GOES and TRMM/VIRS based cloud tops (extruded), the TRMM/PR based rain isosurface, and the CAMEX-4/dropsonde-based heat isosurface.
  • Hurricane Isabel Barrels Down on the East Coast, September 15, 2003
    2003.09.16
    This animation is of Hurricane Isabel on September 15, 2003 as it barrels toward the East Coast of the United States. At this time, Isabel had maximum sustained winds of 150 mph with gusts up to 160 mph. The eye of the storm has a diameter of 40 nautical miles. The storm is moving to the west-northwest at 7mph. The animation peels away the cloud layer and reveals the storm's rain structure. The yellow isosurface represents areas where at least 0.5 inches of rain fell per hour. The green isosurface show 1.0 inches of rain per hour and red displays where more than 2 inches of rain fell per hour.
  • Hurricane Isabel Eyes the Eastern U.S., September 15, 2003
    2003.09.16
    NASA is keeping a close watch on Hurricane Isabel as it churns in the Atlantic with winds that top 150 miles per hour.
  • Hurricane Isabel, September 8, 2003
    2003.09.11
    Hurricane Isabel on September 8, 2003 is the second major hurricane of the 2003 season, measuring a Category 3 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. The storm has maximum sustained winds of 115 mph and is moving west-northwest at 14 mph. The animation peels away at the cloud tops and reveals the underlying rain structure.
  • Hurricane Ignacio on August 25, 2003
    2003.09.10
    This animation is of Hurricane Ignacio as it attacks the coast of Baja, California. The animation peels away the cloud layer and reveals the storm's rain structure. The yellow isosurface represents areas where at least 0.5 inches of rain fell per hour. The green isosurface show 1.0 inches of rain per hour and red displays where more than 2 inches of rain fell per hour.
  • Hurricane Fabian Approaches Bermuda, September 4, 2003
    2003.09.04
    This animation is of Hurricane Fabian on September 4, 2003 as it churns towards Bermuda. At this time, Fabian had maximum sustained winds of 120 mph and was moving to the north-northwest at 12 mph. The animation peels away the cloud layer and reveals the storm's rain structure. The yellow isosurface represents areas where at least 0.5 inches of rain fell per hour. The green isosurface show 1.0 inches of rain per hour and red displays where more than 2 inches of rain fell per hour.
  • Hurricane Claudette Approached Texas July 15, 2003
    2003.07.21
    As Claudette was making landfall near Port O'Connor, Texas, the TRMM and GOES satellites captured these images.
  • Apollo 17 30th Anniversary: Water Vapor in the Atmosphere
    2002.12.02
    The motion of water vapor in the Earth's atmosphere collected from the GOES series of Earth-observing satellites.
  • Tropical Depression 14 on October 15, 2002
    2002.10.28
    Tropical Depression 14 heads toward Cuba on October 15, 2002. The storm appears to be losing strength. The visualization zooms down to the storm and then shows the overall rain structure. Blue represents areas where at least 0.5 inches of rain fell per hour. Green shows at least 1.0 inch of rain. Yellow is 1.7 inches and red depicts more than 2.2 inches of rain per hour.
  • Tropical Storm Kenna on October 22, 2002
    2002.10.22
    Tropical Storm Kenna passes 365 miles south of Acapulco, Mexico. It has maximum sustained winds of 40 mph with gusts to 50 mph. The rain structure is shown in this animation.
  • Tropical Depression Kyle, October 10, 2002
    2002.10.10
    Tropical Depression Kyle is expected to reach the northeast Florida coast in 24 hours. It is currently packing sustained winds of 30 mph. The storm developed on September 20, 2002 and has been classified as a sub-tropical depression, tropical storm, hurricane, tropical storm, and now a tropical depression. The visualization zooms down to the storm and then shows the overall rain structure of Kyle. Yellow represents areas where at least 0.5 inches of rain fell per hour. Green shows at least 1.0 inch of rain, and red depicts more than 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Lili, October 2, 2002
    2002.10.05
    Hurricane Lili strengthened as it passed over the Gulf of Mexico and headed towards the U.S. coast. It was reclassified as a Category 4 hurricane, with sustained winds of 135 mph. The storm is projected to make landfall tomorrow in the same part of Louisiana that Tropical Storm Isidore dumped over 20 inches of rain just one week ago. Evacuation orders have been issued to nearly a half-million people in Louisiana and Texas. A storm surge of 10-12 feet is expected along the immediate coast line.
  • Tropical Storm Isodore Makes Landfall in Louisiana, September 26, 2002
    2002.09.26
    Tropical Storm Isodore blew ashore early Thursday morning packing winds just below hurricane strength. At 11 am (EST) Isodore's center was 60 miles north-northeast of New Orleans and just west of Poplarville, Mississippi. It was moving north-northeast at 17 mph. Tornado warnings and flood watches were posted from the Louisiana coast to the Florida panhandle. The storm has brought two days of steady downpours with 10-12 inch accumulations.
  • Hurricane Isodore on September 19, 2002
    2002.09.20
    Hurricane Isodore is the second Atlantic hurricane of the 2002 season. It brought 80 mph winds and tremendous rainfall to Cuba. The visualization depicts the overall rain structure of the storm. Yellow represents areas where at least 0.5 inches of rain fell per hour. Green shows at least 1.0 inch of rain, and red depicts more than 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Gustav
    2002.09.16
    Tropical Storm Gustav brought 74 mph wind gusts to the Outer Banks on September 9, 2002. The storm was upgraded to a hurricane on September 11 as it headed toward the Canadian Maritimes.
  • Hurricane Hernan, September 1, 2002
    2002.09.03
    Hurricane Hernan located 625 miles west-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California. Hernan has maximum sustained winds of 130 knots with gusts to 160 knots. The overall structure of the storm is shown in this animation with rain amounts being shown through color.Yellow represents 0.5 inches of rain or more, green shows 1.0 inches of rain and red shows 2.0 inches or more.
  • Tropical Storm Cristobal
    2002.08.07
    This animation shows Tropical Storm Cristobal on August 7, 2002 . Cristobal was located east of St. Augustine, Florida. The storm has had a maximum sustained wind speed of 45 MPH. Cristobal is expected to move east-northeast within the next 24 hours.
  • Hurricane Floyd: September 13, 1999
    2002.06.27
    TRMM's view of Hurricane Floyd in 1999. Isosurfaces are: Yellow=0.5 inches/hour, Green=1.0 inches/hour, Red=2.0 inches/hour on rainfall rates. The vertical scale is exaggerated.
  • Hurricane Alma on May 29, 2002
    2002.05.31
    This is Hurricane Alma on May 29, 2002 as seen by TRMM and GOES.

    The animation zooms down to Hurricane Alma and then scans across the cloud tops to reveal the underlying rain structure. There are three isosurfaces defined (Yellow = 0.5 inches/hour, Green = 1.0 inches/hour, and Red = 2.0 inches/hour)

  • Hurricane Iris from TRMM: October 9, 2001
    2001.10.09
    TRMM views hurricane Iris as it strikes Honduras, October 9, 2001. Time is about 09:00 UT, Orbit T03. Isosurfaces are: Yellow=0.5 inches/hour, Green=1.0 inches/hour, Red=2.0 inches/hour on rainfall rates.
  • Hurricane Adolph from TRMM: May 28, 2001
    2001.05.29
    This is a 3-D view of Hurricane Adolph taken by the TRMM satellite on May 28, 2001.
  • Hurricane Keith from TRMM: October 2, 2000 (3 Surfaces)
    2001.03.27
    Hurricane Keith with three rain level isosurfaces (yellow=0.5 inches/hour, green=1.0 inches/hour and 2.0 inches/hour)
  • Hurricane Keith from TRMM: October 5, 2000
    2000.10.05
    3-D view of Hurricane Keith off Mexico from the TRMM satellite. Isosurfaces are generated from TRMM PR and TMI data. Cloud height is generated from the TRMM IR data. Rain rate isosurfaces are 1 inch/hr (green) and 2 inches/hr (red).
  • Hurricane Keith from TRMM: October 2, 2000
    2000.10.02
    3-D view of Hurricane Keith off Honduras from the TRMM satellite. Isosurfaces are generated from TRMM PR and TMI data. Cloud height is generated from the TRMM IR data. Rain rate isosurfaces are 1 inch/hr (green) and 2 inches/hr (red).
  • Clouds over the Great Lakes from GOES-11: August 1, 2000
    2000.08.09
    This animation is one of a series showing the first data from GOES-11. The data shown was taken at one-minute intervals.
  • Clouds over the Pacific Ocean and Latin America from GOES-11: August 2, 2000 (Version One)
    2000.08.09
    This animation is one of a series showing the first data from GOES-11. The data shown was taken at one-minute intervals.
  • Clouds over the Pacific Ocean and Latin America from GOES-11: August 2, 2000 (Version Two)
    2000.08.09
    This animation is one of a series showing the first data from GOES-11. The data shown was taken at one-minute intervals.
  • Clouds over the Pacific Ocean and Latin America from GOES-11: August 2, 2000 (Version Three)
    2000.08.09
    This animation is one of a series showing the first data from GOES-11. The data shown was taken at one-minute intervals.
  • Clouds over North America from GOES-11: August 3, 2000
    2000.08.09
    This animation is one of a series showing the first data from GOES-11. The data shown was taken at one-minute intervals.
  • Clouds over the Great Lakes from GOES-11: August 3, 2000
    2000.08.09
    This animation is one of a series showing the first data from GOES-11. The data shown was taken at one-minute intervals.
  • Clouds over Florida from GOES-11: August 4, 2000
    2000.08.09
    This animation is one of a series showing the first data from GOES-11. The data shown was taken at one-minute intervals.
  • Sea Surface Temp and Hurricane Connections: TRMM and GOES, Aug. 22, 1998 - Sept. 3, 1998 (Basic)
    2000.05.04
    For years scientists have known of the strong correlation between sea surface temperature and the intensity of hurricanes. But one of the major stumbling blocks for forecasters has been the precise measurement of those temperatures when a storm begins to form. Traditional techniques for sea surface temperature measurement can not see through clouds.

    Now researchers using the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite have developed a technique for looking through clouds that is likely to enhance forecasters' abilities to predict hurricane intensity before their massive energies fully develop. A hurricane gathers energy from warm waters found in tropical latitudes. As Hurricane Bonnie crosses the Atlantic, it leaves a cooler trail of water in its wake. As Hurricane Danielle crosses Bonnie's path, the wind speed of the second storm drops markedly, as available energy to fuel the storm's engine drops off. As Danielle crosses Bonnie's wake, however, winds speeds increase due to temperature increases in surface water around the storm.

  • Sea Surface Temp and Hurricane Connections: TRMM and GOES, Aug. 22, 1998 - Sept. 3, 1998 (Deluxe)
    2000.05.04
    For years scientists have known of the strong correlation between sea surface temperature and the intensity of hurricanes. But one of the major stumbling blocks for forecasters has been the precise measurement of those temperatures when a storm begins to form. Traditional techniques for sea surface temperature measurement can not see through clouds. Now researchers using the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite have developed a technique for looking through clouds that is likely to enhance forecasters' abilities to predict hurricane intensity before their massive energies fully develop. A hurricane gathers energy from warm waters found in tropical latitudes. As Hurricane Bonnie crosses the Atlantic, it leaves a cooler trail of water in its wake. As Hurricane Danielle crosses Bonnie's path, the wind speed of the second storm drops markedly, as available energy to fuel the storm's engine drops off. As Danielle crosses Bonnie's wake, however, winds speeds increase due to temperature increases in surface water around the storm. This version Includes a speed bar showing Danielle's wind speed and a date annotation.
  • Sea Surface Temperature and Hurricane Connections: GOES - August 22, 1998 Through September 3, 1998
    2000.05.04
    For years scientists have known of the strong correlation between sea surface temperature and the intensity of hurricanes. But one of the major stumbling blocks for forecasters has been the precise measurement of those temperatures when a storm begins to form. Traditional techniques for sea surface temperature measurement can not see through clouds.

    Now researchers using the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite have developed a technique for looking through clouds that is likely to enhance forecasters' abilities to predict hurricane intensity before their massive energies fully develop. A hurricane gathers energy from warm waters found in tropical latitudes.

    As Hurricane Bonnie crosses the Atlantic, it leaves a cooler trail of water in its wake. As Hurricane Danielle crosses Bonnie's path, the wind speed of the second storm drops markedly, as available energy to fuel the storm's engine drops off. As Danielle crosses Bonnie's wake, however, winds speeds increase due to temperature increases in surface water around the storm.

  • 3D Atlanta Heat Island
    2000.02.21
    Zoom in showing true color, then changing to daytime thermal, then nighttime thermal, using mountain top, Landsat, ATLAS thermal, land use, and clouds/convection data
  • Digital Earth Workbench: GOES Satellite data of Hurricane Dennis
    1999.11.12
    The Digital Earth Workbench is an interactive application that runs on a SGI Onyx Infinite Reality system and is controlled by an Immersive Workbench, tracked stereo glasses, and a tracked wand. The application allows an unprecedented freedom to roam georeferenced data sets at multiple resolutions and timescales. This animation is one of a series of direct screen captures of the application in operation. The occasional menu appearance denotes direct intervention by the operator to add or delete data or to activate a new control option.
  • Hurricane Bonnie from TRMM and GOES with Cloud Tower: August 22, 1998
    1998.12.31
    These compelling images are from Hurricane Bonnie showing a cumulonimbus storm cloud, towering like a sky scraper, 59,000 feet (18 kilometers) into the sky from the eyewall. Thes images were obtained on Saturday, 22 August 1998, by the world's first spaceboarne rain RADAR aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S.-Japanese mission. Launched November 27, 1997, the TRMM spacecraft continues to provide exciting new insight into cloud systems over tropical oceans. By comparison, the highest mountain in the world, Mt. Everest, is 29,000 feet (9 kilometers) and the average commercial jet flies at barely one-half the height of Bonnie's cloud tops. Scientists believe that towering cloud structures like this are probably precursors to hurricane intensification. This was the situation with Bonnie whose central pressure dropped from 977 millibars to 957 millibars in the subsequent 24 hours. TRMM is a joint NASA and NASDA mission that was launched November 27, 1997 from the Japanese Space Center, Tanegashima, Japan.
  • Hurricane Bonnie from TRMM with Cloud Tower: August 22, 1998 (Long Version)
    1998.12.31
    These compelling images are from Hurricane Bonnie showing a cumulonimbus storm cloud, towering like a sky scraper, 59,000 feet (18 kilometers) into the sky from the eyewall. Thes images were obtained on Saturday, 22 August 1998, by the world's first spaceboarne rain RADAR aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S.-Japanese mission. Launched November 27, 1997, the TRMM spacecraft continues to provide exciting new insight into cloud systems over tropical oceans. By comparison, the highest mountain in the world, Mt. Everest, is 29,000 feet (9 kilometers) and the average commercial jet flies at barely one-half the height of Bonnie's cloud tops. Scientists believe that towering cloud structures like this are probably precursors to hurricane intensification. This was the situation with Bonnie whose central pressure dropped from 977 millibars to 957 millibars in the subsequent 24 hours. TRMM is a joint NASA and NASDA mission that was launched November 27, 1997 from the Japanese Space Center, Tanegashima, Japan.
  • Hurricane Bonnie from TRMM with Cloud Tower: August 22, 1998 (Short Version)
    1998.12.31
    These compelling images are from Hurricane Bonnie showing a cumulonimbus storm cloud, towering like a sky scraper, 59,000 feet (18 kilometers) into the sky from the eyewall. Thes images were obtained on Saturday, 22 August 1998, by the world's first spaceboarne rain RADAR aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a joint U.S.-Japanese mission. Launched November 27, 1997, the TRMM spacecraft continues to provide exciting new insight into cloud systems over tropical oceans. By comparison, the highest mountain in the world, Mt. Everest, is 29,000 feet (9 kilometers) and the average commercial jet flies at barely one-half the height of Bonnie's cloud tops. Scientists believe that towering cloud structures like this are probably precursors to hurricane intensification. This was the situation with Bonnie whose central pressure dropped from 977 millibars to 957 millibars in the subsequent 24 hours. TRMM is a joint NASA and NASDA mission that was launched November 27, 1997 from the Japanese Space Center, Tanegashima, Japan.
  • VIS-5D VR Animations: Hurricane Florence
    1996.01.01
    The VIS-5D scientific visualization system has been extended to include an interactive mode controlled by virtual environment devices. This animation is part of a series of live screen captures demonstrating this capability.
  • VIS-5D VR Animations: Virtual Hand Functionality
    1996.01.01
    The VIS-5D scientific visualization system has been extended to include an interactive mode controlled by virtual environment devices. This animation is part of a series of live screen captures demonstrating this capability.
  • Lunar Rotation and Flyby from Clementine Data (with route map)
    1995.06.09
    Clementine was a joint project between the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization and NASA. The objective of the mission was to test sensors and spacecraft components under extended exposure to the space environment and to make scientific observations of the Moon and the near-Earth asteroid 1620 Geographos. Clementine was launched on 25 January 1994 at 16:34 UTC (12:34 PM EDT) from Vandenberg AFB aboard a Titan II G rocket. After two Earth flybys, lunar insertion was achieved on February 21. Lunar mapping took place over approximately two months, in two parts. The first part consisted of a 5 hour elliptical polar orbit with a perilune of about 400 km at 28 degrees S latitude. After one month of mapping the orbit was rotated to a perilune of 29 degrees N latitude, where it remained for one more month. This allowed global imaging as well as altimetry coverage from 60 degrees S to 60 degrees N.
  • Ocean Planet: Partial Tour with Map Route Inset
    1994.04.29
    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.
  • Ocean Planet: Final Version
    1994.04.29
    The Ocean Planet is a traveling exhibition from the Smithsonian Institution which opened in Washington DC on April 22, 1995. A part of the exhibition was a computer flyby of the Pacific Ocean developed in the SVS. This animation represents a stage in the development of that flyby.
  • Hurricane Gilbert from GOES: September 12-13, 1988
    1994.03.13
    Hurricane Gilbert was one of the strongest hurricanes ever seen in the Atlantic, with winds up to 184 miles per hour. It devastated Jamaica before coming to land at the Yucatan Peninsula.

Hurricanes

  • Hurricane Resource Page
    2015.05.29
    This Reel Includes the Following Sections TRT 50:10 Hurricane Overviews 1:02; Hurricane Arthur 15:07; Cyclone Pam 19:48; Typhoon Hagupit 21:27; Hurricane Bertha 22:03; Hurricanes Iselle and Julio 23:15; September 2014 Hurricane Alley 25:07; Satellite Beauty Passes 28:31; Hurricane Katrina 36:32; Global Portrait of Precipitation 42:00; Typhoon Halong 42:36; Typhoon Maysak 43:13; Superstorm Sandy 44:21; Hurricanes Fay and Gonzalo 45:29; RapidScat 46:12; CYGNSS 49:16 Super(s): NASA; Center Contact: Rob Gutro 301-286-4044; HQ Contact: Steve Cole 202-358-0918; Link to gallery hurricane and typhoon resource page. Includes a section for named storms between 1988-2007 including Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Gallery page also includes the following sections: hurricane resources; TRMM 3D hurricane products; narrated hurricane products and hurricanes sea surface temperature connections. Gallery resource page for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. Includes 3D scans of recent storms like Hurricane Bertha and Super Typhoon Maysak. It also includes IMERG visualizations, beauty passes of the satellite and edited features. Gallery resource page for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Video file for the RapidScat mission. More information about RapidScat can be found HERE. Link to video for the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System, or CYGNSS mission. More about the mission HERE.
  • GPM Examines Super Typhoon Maysak
    2015.04.08
    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Satellite captured a 3-D image of Typhoon Maysak on March 30th as the storm approached the Yap Islands. The storm later intensified to a category 5-equivalent super typhoon with 150-mph sustains winds.

    The GPM Core Observatory carries two instruments that show the location and intensity of rain and snow, which defines a crucial part of the storm structure – and how it will behave. The GPM Microwave Imager sees through the tops of clouds to observe how much and where precipitation occurs, and the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar observes precise details of precipitation in 3-dimensions.

    GPM data is part of the toolbox of satellite data used by forecasters and scientists to understand how storms behave. GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Current and future data sets are available with free registration to users from NASA Goddard's Precipitation Processing Center website.

  • Hurricane Danielle's Hot Towers August 27,2010 Stereoscopic Version
    2010.10.30
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft allows us to look under Hurricane Danielle's clouds to see the rain structure on August 27, 2005 at 06:46 UTC or 2:46 EDT. At this time, Hurricane Danielle was a powerful Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale with sustained winds of 115 knots (132 mph). An area of deep convective towers (shown in red) is prominently visible in the center of the storm. These tall towers are the key to Danielle's intensification. They are associated with the strong thunderstorms responsible for the areas of intense rain. These storms within a storm are releasing vast amounts of heat into the core of Danielle. This heating, known as latent heating, is what is driving the storm's circulation and intensification. This animation shows infrared data from TRMM's Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) sensor above a thinner swath from TRMM's Precipitation Radar (PR). TRMM reveals that Danielle now has a well-formed eye surrounded by sharply curved rainbands—all signs of mature storm with an intense circulation. TRMM also reveals that there are very powerful thunderstorms in Danielle's eye wall dropping extreme amounts of rain.
  • Hurricane Danielle's Hot Towers
    2010.09.02
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft allows us to look under Hurricane Danielle's clouds to see the rain structure on August 27, 2005 at 06:46 UTC or 2:46 EDT. At this time, Hurricane Danielle was a powerful Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale with sustained winds of 115 knots (132 mph). An area of deep convective towers (shown in red) is prominently visible in the center of the storm. These tall towers are the key to Danielle's intensification. They are associated with the strong thunderstorms responsible for the areas of intense rain seen in the previous image. These storms within a storm are releasing vast amounts of heat into the core of Danielle. This heating, known as latent heating, is what is driving the storm's circulation and intensification. This animation shows infrared data from TRMM's Visible Infrared Scanner (VIRS) sensor above a thinner swath from TRMM's Precipitation Radar (PR). TRMM reveals that Danielle now has a well-formed eye surrounded by sharply curved rainbands—all signs of mature storm with an intense circulation. TRMM also reveals that there are very powerful thunderstorms in Danielle's eye wall dropping extreme amounts of rain.
  • Hurricane Earl Develops Stirs up the Atlantic on August 31, 2010
    2010.08.29
    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this natural-color image of Hurricane Earl on August 26 at 1545 UTC. At this time, she was a category 4 storm with winds of 135 mph.
  • Hurricane Danielle Churns in the Atlantic on August 26, 2010
    2010.08.27
    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite captured this natural-color image of Hurricane Danielle on August 26 at 1555 UTC. At this time, she was a category 2 storm with winds of 90 knots and a pressure reading of 982 mb. Danielle has a distinct eye with the storm's longest spiral arms streching toward the northeast.
  • Hurricane Alex Makes Landfall in Northeastern Mexico
    2010.07.01
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Alex on June 30, 2010 at 2103 UTC (5:02 PM EST). At this time, Hurricane Alex was increasing in intensity and had become a category 2 storm with estimated winds at 75 knots (~86.4 mph) and a pressure reading of 962 mb. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar (PR) instruments. The TMI rainfall analysis shows that Alex had a well defined eye containing powerful thounderstorms that were dropping extreme amounts of rain. The clouds are taken by TRMM's visible-infrared radiometer (VIRS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-13) infrared instrument. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. The colored isosurface under the clouds show the rain seen by the PR instrument. Areas of extremely heavy rainfall are colored in red. Heavy rainfall are colored in yellow, moderate rainfall are colored in green, and light rain are in blue.
  • Hurricane Katrina 3D Stereoscopic Viewfinder Image
    2010.07.01
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Katrina on August 28, 2005. At the time the data was collected, Katrina was a Category 5 hurricane, the most destructive and deadly. The cloud cover data was taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS), with additional data from the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure data was taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI). This view looks underneath the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. This stereoscopic still image was created from a previous visualization and is intended for viewing through a special NASA Earth Science Viewfinder available through NASA Headquarters. Below, we include an anaglyph version, a printable viewfinder version, and the individual left eye and right eye views.
  • Tropical Depression ALEX hits Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula
    2010.06.29
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Depression Alex on June 27, 2010 at 2214 UTC (6:14 PM EST). Tropical depression Alex was near the western coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. Alex had weakened and wasn't dropping the very heavy rainfall that had occurred a day earlier causing deadly flooding. At the time of this image, Alex had winds estimated at 35 knots (~40.3 mph) and a pressure reading of 991 mb. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar (PR) instruments. The clouds are taken by TRMM's visible-infrared radiometer (VIRS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-13) infrared instrument. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. The colored isosurface under the clouds show the rain seen by the PR instrument. Areas of extremely heavy rainfall are colored in red. Heavy rainfall are colored in yellow, moderate rainfall are colored in green, and light rain are in blue.
  • Tropical Storm Ida Observed on November 9, 2009 at 1218 UTC
    2009.11.09
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Storm Ida on November 9, 2009 at 1218 UTC (7:18 AM EST). Scattered convective thunderstorms are shown producing moderate to heavy rainfall of over 50 millimeters per hour (~2 inches) north of IDA's center of circulation and in a strong band on the eastern side. At the time of this image IDA had winds estimated at 70 knots (~80.5 mph). IDA is predicted by the National Hurricane Center in Miami, Florida to hit the Gulf coast near Pensacola, Florida on Tuesday morning. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. The colored isosurface under the clouds show the rain seen by the PR instrument.
  • Hurricane Bill on August 17, 2009 at 1133 UTC
    2009.08.17
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Bill on August 17, 2009 at 1133 UTC. At this time the storm was a category 1 hurricane with sustained winds of 56 knots (64 mph), a pressure reading of 994 millibars. The cloud cover in this animation is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. The colored isosurface under the clouds show the rain seen by the PR instrument.
  • 2008 Hurricane Season with Sea Surface Temperature
    2008.11.30
    This animation depicts the 2008 hurricane season and the corresponding water temperature, for the dates 6/1/08 through 11/30/08. The colors on the ocean represent the sea surface temperatures, and satellite images of the storm clouds are laid over the temperatures to clearly show the positions of the storms. Hurricane winds are sustained by the heat energy of the warm surface waters of the ocean. As a hurricane passes over the warm surface it churns the water, drawing the deeper, cooler water to the surface. This mixing can appear in the animation as a blue pool trailing the hurricane. The sea surface temperature data was taken by the AMSR-E instrument on the Aqua satellite, while the cloud images were taken by the Imager on the GOES-12 satellite.
  • Hurricane Gustav Sea Surface Temperature, 8/31/08
    2008.09.30
    This visualization shows Hurricane Gustav and Tropical Storm Hanna as they appeared on August 31, 2008. The colors on the ocean represent the sea surface temperatures, and satellite images of the storm clouds are laid over the temperatures to clearly show the positions of the storms. Hurricane winds are sustained by the heat energy of the ocean, so the ocean is cooled as the hurricane passes and the energy is extracted to power the winds. This cooling is shown by the blue trail in the Gulf of Mexico on the east side of Gustav. The sea surface temperature data was taken by the AMSR-E instrument on the Aqua satellite, while the cloud images were taken by the Imager on the GOES-12 satellite.
  • Hurricane Ike Attacks the Gulf Coast on September 12, 2008
    2008.09.12
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Ike on September 12, 2008 at 1035Z or 6:35 AM EST. At this time the storm was an extremely dangerous category 2 hurricane with sustained winds of 90 knots (103 mph) and a pressure reading of 953 millibars. Hurricane-force winds were extending outward 120 miles from the center, while tropical storm-force winds extend up to 275 miles. Size matters when it comes to hurricanes. Larger storms produce a wider swath of wind damage and stir up the water that create a surge on a longer coastline. With Hurricane Ike, the wind field is exceptionally large and so is the destructive potential for storm surge. Surge flooding up to 25 feet is expected. The cloud cover in this animation is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Ike on September 10, 2008 at 1745 UTC
    2008.09.11
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Ike on September 10, 2008 at 1745 UTC or 1:45PM EST. At this time the storm was a category 2 hurricane with sustained winds of 85 knots (97.75 mph), a pressure reading of 958 millibars, and a diameter of 100 miles. The cloud cover in this animation is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. The colored isosurface uner the clouds show the rain seen by the PR instrument. This surface is colored according to cloud height where yellow represents 10 km thunderclouds and red represents 15 km or more intense thunderclouds. Ike is expected to generate a 10 to 15 foot storm surge along a 100 mile stretch of the Texas Coast from the eye landfall location.
  • Hurricane Ike Strengthens in the Gulf of Mexico on September 10, 2008
    2008.09.10
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Ike on September 10, 2008 as slammed into Cuba . At this time the storm was a category 1 hurricane with sustained winds of 75 knots (86.25 mph) and a pressure reading of 963 millibars. At this time, TRMM's data and aircraft reports confirm the small inner eye is eroding as the outer bands, shown here as red towers, are becoming better defined. This could limit rapid intensity development in the very near term, but the storm is projected to strengthen before it makes landfall. The cloud cover in this animation is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. The colored isosurface uner the clouds show the rain seen by the PR instrument. This surface is colored according to cloud height where yellow represents 10 km thunderclouds and red represents 12 km more intense thunderclouds.
  • Hurricane Ike Slams Cuba on September 8, 2008
    2008.09.08
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Ike on September 8, 2008 as slammed into Cuba . At this time the storm had weakened to a category 2 hurricane with sustained winds of 85 knots (98 mph) and a pressure reading of 960 millibars. Hurricane-force winds were extending outward 60 miles from the center, while tropical storm-force winds extended up to 200 miles from the center. The cloud cover in this animation is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 1.5 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Ike on September 4, 2008
    2008.09.04
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Ike on September 4, 2008 as it strengthened in the Atlantic. At this time the storm was an extremely dangerous category 4 hurricane with sustained winds of 125 knots (143 mph) and a pressure reading of 935 millibars. Hurricane-force winds were extending outward 45 miles from the center, while tropical storm-force winds extend up to 140 miles. The cloud cover in this animation is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Tropical Storm Hanna's Towering Thunderclouds
    2008.09.03
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Storm Hanna on September 1, 2008 at 1418 UTC (10:18 EDT). At this time the storm was a tropical storm with sustained winds of 50 knots (57.5 mph) and a pressure reading of 994 millibars. Three hours later, The National Hurricane Center upgraded this storm to a category 1 hurricane with sustained winds of 70 knots and a pressure reading of 984 millibars. TRMM documented one reason for this rapid intensification - strong thunderstorms with heights of over 17 kilometers (10.5 miles) in the eastern eyewall of this tropical storm. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. The rain structure is colored by the height of the clouds.
  • Hurricane Gustav on August 31, 2008
    2008.09.01
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Gustav on August 31, 2008 as the Gulf Coast braces for the worst. At this time the storm was a category 3 hurricane with sustained winds of 100 knots (115 mph) and a pressure reading of 957 millibars. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar (PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Gustav on August 27, 2008
    2008.08.27
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Gustav on August 27, 2008 as it attacked Haiti. At this time the storm was a category 1 hurricane with sustained winds of 65 knots (75 mph) and a pressure reading of 992 millibars. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Gustav Slams Haiti
    2008.08.26
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Gustav on August 26, 2008 just before it made landfall in Haiti. At this time the storm sustained winds of 75 knots (86 mph) and a pressure reading of 984 millibars. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Tropical Storm Edouard
    2008.08.11
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Storm Edouard on August 5, 2008 as it made landfall in Texas. At this time the storm sustained winds of 55 knots (63 mph). The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Tropical Storm Fay Inundates Florida
    2008.08.11
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Storm Fay on August 20, 2008 at 0345Z as it crossed Florida. At this time the storm sustained winds of 45 knots (52 mph) and a pressure reading of 990 millibars. The storm stalled in this location for 24 hours and brought over 24 inches of rain to Eastern Florida. The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Dean on August 21, 2007
    2007.08.21
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Dean on August 21, 2007. At this time the storm was classified as a category two with sustained winds of 90 knots (103.7 mph). The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar (PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Gray represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Dean on August 19, 2007
    2007.08.19
    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Hurricane Dean on August 19, 2007. At this time the storm was classified as a dangerous category four with sustained winds of 125 knots (138 mph). The cloud cover is taken by TRMM's Visible and Infrared Scanner(VIRS) and the GOES spacecraft. The rain structure is taken by TRMM's Tropical Microwave Imager (TMI) and TRMM's Precitation Radar(PR) instruments. TRMM looks underneath of the storm's clouds to reveal the underlying rain structure. Blue represents areas with at least 0.25 inches of rain per hour. Green shows at least 0.5 inches of rain per hour. Yellow is at least 1.0 inches of rain and red is at least 2.0 inches of rain per hour.
  • Hurricane Rita Push In
    2007.07.04
    This animation is a simple push in to GOES-based clouds showing Hurricane Rita make its way through the Gulf of Mexico and then inland. This animation was created in support of the 'Exploring Time' show produced by Red Hill Studios and Tom Lucas Productions. For more information go to http://exploringtime.org.
  • 27 Storms: Arlene to Zeta
    2006.05.31
    Many records were broken during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season including the most hurricanes ever, the most category 5 hurricanes, and the most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Atlantic as measured by atmospheric pressure. This visualization shows all 27 named storms that formed in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season and examines some of the conditions that made hurricane formation so favorable.

    The animation begins by showing the regions of warm water that are favorable for storm development advancing northward through the peak of hurricane season and then receding as the waters cool. The thermal energy in these warm waters powers the hurricanes. Strong shearing winds in the troposphere can disrupt developing young storms, but measurements indicate that there was very little shearing wind activity in 2005 to impede storm formation.

    Sea surface temperatures, clouds, storm tracks, and hurricane category labels are shown as the hurricane season progresses.

    This visualization shows some of the actual data that NASA and NOAA satellites measured in 2005 — data used to predict the paths and intensities of hurricanes. Satellite data play a vital role in helping us understand the land, ocean, and atmosphere systems that have such dramatic effects on our lives.

    NOTE: This animation shows the named storms from the 2005 hurricane season. During a re-analysis of 2005, NOAA's Tropical Prediction Center/National Hurricane Center determined that a short-lived subtropcial storm developed near the Azores Islands in late September, increasing the 2005 tropical storm count from 27 to 28. This storm was not named and is not shown in this animation.

    '27 Storms: Arlene to Zeta' played in the SIGGRAPH 2007 Computer Animation Festival in August 2007. It was also a finalist in the 2006 NSF Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge.