This gallery was created for Earth Science Week 2015 and beyond. It includes a quick start guide for educators and first-hand stories (blogs) for learners of all ages by NASA visualizers, scientists and educators. We hope that your understanding and use of NASA's visualizations will only increase as your appreciation grows for the beauty of the science they portray, and the communicative power they hold. Read all the blogs and find educational resources for all ages at: the Earth Science Week 2015 page.
Imagine you're flying 438 miles above the Earth taking pictures and collecting information of everything below. What do you see? Now imagine you’ve been doing this non-stop for over 40 years. Do you notice any change?
A satellite series named Landsat has been doing exactly that. As a NASA scientist, I've been using Landsat-8 (the current satellite) data for a long time. Yet it's still amazing to create images of salt reflecting a brilliant white in a natural color scene, or seeing it turn a beautiful cyan using an infrared perspective. With the right tools I can discern patterns in the salt or make visible the phytoplankton dancing on the blue ocean. I've observed cities grow, forests recover from fire, islands form, and more. Our world is constantly changing.
When sunlight hits the Earth's surface, it is absorbed, reflected, or scattered, resulting in different wavelengths of light leaving the Earth. Landsat-8 measures the visible and infrared wavelengths in 30-meter pixels and in order to "see" the image, we assign particular colors to different wavelengths.
Landsat satellites collect data along a wide ground track. This visualization zooms in to the site of the 2014 Major League Baseball All-Star game, revealing that an individual 30-meter pixel covers an area roughly the size of a baseball diamond. (NASA/Goddard/Landsat)
Recently, I was asked to create a Landsat mosaic of the entire Chesapeake Bay watershed. I've created Landsat mosaics using twelve Landsat scenes, but this mosaic would dwarf them all at well over forty! Creating even a small mosaic is difficult depending on the day or season the image was acquired, cloud cover, projections and satellite age (i.e., whether the data is from one of the newer or older Landsat satellite.) To minimizes these impacts, projects such as the Global Land Survey selects the best cloud-free images from Landsat satellites to generate a completely cloud-free scene every five years.
So when asked how long this would take I responded, "a few months and I'll need a much better computer!" I began creating a composite of the Landsat scene, adjusting settings and matching colors to create the most natural and detailed image possible. I softened borders of the scene using the erase tool and began to see individual scenes flow into the next as boundaries disappeared. Due to the image size we tapped our friends over at the U.S. Geological Survey WELD project (Web-enabled Landsat Data) to help create a mosaic. But while the land images flowed seamlessly the water had many artifacts, discolorations and clouds that unnaturally ended at the edges of the water bodies.
This image shows the scene before correcting the visible discoloration and unnatural looking edges. (Taylor, 2015)
The last thing I wanted was the water to look unnatural — the Bay was the focus of the mosaic! And so began my arduous task of masking these imperfections (often zooming so far in that I had only a few pixels on my screen.) After this, I layered a true color USGS image of the Bay and Eastern Shore onto my mosaic and used another mask to crop out the water. Where they didn't align, I matched up the water layers as best I could with my WELD mosaic. I played around with color vibrancy and contrast using an Adobe product called "Lightroom" which boosted the greens, reds and contrast to reflect a color closer to leaves for the land.
After a month of hard work, it was finally time to print and do a final check! This is the largest single image I've worked on to date, and while I always spot something I can improve, I couldn't be more proud. Knowing scientists and non-scientists will appreciate this image is one of the most rewarding aspects of my work.
Mike Taylor transforms remotely sensed data into visually stunning products for educators, scientists and the general public. He holds degrees in geographic information sciences and has a diverse background in computers. Mike lives in Maryland where he enjoys hiking and camping, board games, lifting weights and smoking delicious meats (he's also known to never pass up on fine beer and steak!)