Planets and Moons  ID: 4730

MAVEN Mars Electric Current Systems

Unlike the Earth, Mars lacks a global magnetic dipole. Because its upper atmosphere is ionized by solar X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiations, the ionosphere of Mars presents a highly conductive obstacle to the flow of the magnetized solar wind plasma. The resulting interaction induces electric currents in the ionosphere which, in turn, create sufficient magnetic pressure to slow and deflect the solar wind around the bulk of the ionosphere, forming an induced magnetosphere.

NASA scientists used magnetic field measurements from the Mars Atmosphere and Volatiles EvolutioN (MAVEN) orbiter to make the first quantitative global map of the induced currents that shape the Martian induced magnetosphere. In doing so they found strong asymmetries between the north-south electric-polar hemispheres, particularly in the concentration of sunward currents, an electric connection between the planet's ionosphere and its bow shock, as well as a twist in the global near-Mars current system. Mapping the currents reveals how the solar wind's energy transfers into the induced magnetosphere where it powers escape of the Martian atmosphere.

Here we show visualizations of the actual and the idealized current systems that are formed as a result of a solar wind driven convective electric field. In addition, a sequence of calculated magnetic fields measured by MAVEN shown here illustrates that magnetic fields are forced to wrap around the planet by currents induced in Mars’ ionosphere.
 

Used Elsewhere In


Visualization Credits

Lead Visualizer:
Cindy Starr (GST)

Data Visualizers:
Horace Mitchell (NASA/GSFC)
Tom Bridgman (GST)

Scientists:
David Brain (University of Colorado Boulder)
Robin Ramstad (University of Colorado Boulder)
Yaxue Dong (LASP)
Jared Espley (NASA/GSFC)
Bruce Jakosky (LASP)
Jasper Halekas (University of Iowa)

Producer:
Dan Gallagher (USRA)

Project Support:
Leann Johnson (GST)
Eric Sokolowsky (GST)

Technical Support:
Laurence Schuler (ADNET)
Ian Jones (ADNET)

Please give credit for this item to:
NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio

Science Paper:
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-020-1099-y

Short URL to share this page:
https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/4730

Data Used:
MAVEN/MAG/Magnetic Field Vectors
MAVEN/SWIA/Ion Fluxes
Note: While we identify the data sets used in these visualizations, we do not store any further details nor the data sets themselves on our site.

Keywords:
SVS >> Magnetic Fields
SVS >> Mars
SVS >> Hyperwall
NASA Science >> Planets and Moons
GCMD >> Earth Science >> Sun-earth Interactions >> Ionosphere/Magnetosphere Dynamics >> Magnetic Fields/magnetic Currents

GCMD keywords can be found on the Internet with the following citation: Olsen, L.M., G. Major, K. Shein, J. Scialdone, S. Ritz, T. Stevens, M. Morahan, A. Aleman, R. Vogel, S. Leicester, H. Weir, M. Meaux, S. Grebas, C.Solomon, M. Holland, T. Northcutt, R. A. Restrepo, R. Bilodeau, 2013. NASA/Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Earth Science Keywords. Version 8.0.0.0.0