The Voyager program , two spacecraft launched in 1977, and successors to the Pioneer 10 and 11 missions, completed flybys of the giant outer planets. They became the implementation of the 'Grand Tour' of the outer planets originally proposed in the late 1960s. The Voyagers provided some of the first detailed measurments of the strength, extent and diversity of the magnetospheres of the outer planets.
In these visualizations, we present simplified models of these planetary magnetospheres, designed to illustrate their scale, and basic features of their structure and impacts of the magnetic axes offset from the planetary rotation axes.
The rotation axis of Neptune is highly tilted relative to the revolution axis of the solar system, but nowhere near as extreme as Uranus. It's magnetic axis also has a large tilt relative to the rotation axis. These effects combine to not only give Uranus a more a more variable magnetosphere, but suggest the planet's magnetic field may be generated by a different mechanism than that of Earth, Jupiter and Saturn.
For these visualizations, the magnetic field structure is represented by gold/copper lines. Some additional glyphs are provided to indicate some key directions in the field model.
- The Yellow arrow points towards the sun. The magnetotail is pointed in the opposite direction.
- The Cyan arrow represents the magnetic axis, usually tilted relative to the rotation axis. The arrow indicates the NORTH magnetic pole (convention has field lines moving north to south as the north pole of bar magnet (and compass pointer) points to the south magnetic pole).
- The Blue arrow represents the north rotation axis. It is part of the 3-D axis glyph (red, green, and blue arrows) included to make the planetary rotation more apparent.
- The semi-transparent grey mesh in the distance represents the boundary of the magnetosphere.
The models are constructed by combining the fields of a simple magnetic dipole, a current sheet (whose intensity is tuned match the scale of the magnetotail), and occasionally a ring current. This is a variation of the simple Luhmann-Friesen magnetosphere model. They are meant to be representative of the basic characteristics of the planetary magnetic fields. Some features NOT included are longitudes of magnetic poles to a standard planetary coordinate system and offsets of the dipole center from the planetary center.
- T. Gold, Motions in the Magnetosphere of the Earth
- Luhmann & Friesen, A simple model of the magnetosphere
- Magnetic reconnection at Neptune's magnetopause
- LASP: Polarity of planetary magnetic fields
- Wikipedia: The Solar Storm of 1859
- Wikipedia: Kristian Birkeland
- Wikipedia: Carl Størmer
Special thanks to Arik Posner (NASA/HQ) and Gina DiBraccio (UMBC/GSFC) for helpful pointers on orientation of planetary rotation and magnetic axes.
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NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio
Datasets used in this visualization
JPL DE 430
Credit: JPL NAIFSee more visualizations using this data set
Magnetic Field Lines (Luhmann-Friesen) (Collected with the Luhmann-Friesen Magnetosphere Model (1979) sensor)
Note: While we identify the data sets used in these visualizations, we do not store any further details, nor the data sets themselves on our site.