Antarctic Ice Mass Loss 2002-2023

  • Released Friday, March 8, 2024

The mass of the Antarctic ice sheet has changed over the last decades. Research based on observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites (2002-2017) and GRACE Follow-On (since 2018 - ) indicates that between 2002 and 2023, Antarctica shed approximately 150 gigatons of ice per year, causing global sea level to rise by 0.4 millimeters per year.

These images, created from GRACE and GRACE-FO data, show changes in Antarctic ice mass since 2002. Orange and red shades indicate areas that lost ice mass, while light blue shades indicate areas that gained ice mass. White indicates areas where there has been very little or no change in ice mass since 2002. Areas in East Antarctica experienced modest amounts of mass gain due to increased snow accumulation. However, this gain is more than offset by significant ice mass loss on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (dark red) over the 21-year period. Floating ice shelves whose mass change GRACE & GRACE-FO do not measure are colored gray.

The average flow lines (grey; created from satellite radar interferometry) of Antarctica’s ice converge into the locations of prominent outlet glaciers, and coincide with areas of highest mass loss (i.e., Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers in West-Antarctica). This supports other observations that warming ocean waters around Antarctica play a key role in contemporary ice mass loss.

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Please give credit for this item to:
NASA and JPL/Caltech

Release date

This page was originally published on Friday, March 8, 2024.
This page was last updated on Wednesday, March 13, 2024 at 11:21 AM EDT.

Datasets used in this visualization

  • Monthly Surface Mass Anomalies [GRACE and GRACE-FO]

    ID: 1113

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and GRACE Follow-On (FO) Monthly Surface Mass Anomalies

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Note: While we identify the data sets used in these visualizations, we do not store any further details, nor the data sets themselves on our site.