1 00:00:06,000 --> 00:00:10,600 Some places on the surface you might have these steep cracks and giant fissures 2 00:00:10,600 --> 00:00:13,180 that you would have to be careful not to fall into 3 00:00:13,180 --> 00:00:16,740 In other places, you might see towers of ice 4 00:00:16,740 --> 00:00:19,410 right next to places that are relatively smooth 5 00:00:19,410 --> 00:00:21,410 You might see places that were dark 6 00:00:21,410 --> 00:00:27,820 Ice there takes the form of rock. It's frozen solid until you dig down into that ocean 7 00:00:27,820 --> 00:00:34,030 So you may see somethings that look similar to Earth, but you may see things that are very different 8 00:00:34,030 --> 00:00:42,560 9 00:00:42,560 --> 00:00:46,070 NASA Explorers 10 00:00:46,070 --> 00:00:48,570 Cryosphere 11 00:00:48,570 --> 00:00:51,310 12 00:00:51,310 --> 00:00:52,890 Frozen World 13 00:00:52,890 --> 00:00:56,330 Episode Five 14 00:00:56,330 --> 00:00:57,450 That voice you just heard? 15 00:00:57,450 --> 00:01:00,920 I am Morgan Cable, NASA scientist! 16 00:01:00,920 --> 00:01:02,980 That's Morgan. 17 00:01:02,980 --> 00:01:08,460 She’s probably one of NASA’s best spokespeople for exploring our solar system’s icy moons 18 00:01:08,460 --> 00:01:10,100 Europa is a fascinating place 19 00:01:10,100 --> 00:01:16,730 It has this liquid water ocean that’s about three times the volume of all of Earth’s oceans combined 20 00:01:16,730 --> 00:01:18,280 That’s a lot of water 21 00:01:18,280 --> 00:01:19,220 22 00:01:19,220 --> 00:01:21,470 To understand what makes Earth so special, 23 00:01:21,470 --> 00:01:25,000 sometimes you need to back up and take in the big picture 24 00:01:25,000 --> 00:01:28,420 Remember, the cryosphere is every place on Earth with frozen water 25 00:01:28,420 --> 00:01:31,800 And water is one of the biggest indicators for life 26 00:01:31,800 --> 00:01:37,150 Every place, at least so far, that we’ve found life we’ve found water along with it 27 00:01:37,150 --> 00:01:42,500 And so far, Earth is the only planet we know of with life 28 00:01:42,500 --> 00:01:46,470 Although Europa isn’t the only icy moon in our solar system, 29 00:01:46,470 --> 00:01:52,080 NASA has identified it as one of those places with key astro-biological potential 30 00:01:52,080 --> 00:01:56,180 Morgan is a collaborator on the Mapping Imaging Spectrometer for Europa 31 00:01:56,180 --> 00:02:00,810 an instrument selected for NASA’s next mission to Jupiter’s icy moon Europa 32 00:02:00,810 --> 00:02:04,740 But she’s also more than just a scientist working in a laboratory 33 00:02:04,740 --> 00:02:10,860 She’s preparing future NASA missions for success on the surface of alien worlds 34 00:02:10,860 --> 00:02:19,160 35 00:02:19,160 --> 00:02:24,810 This year, Morgan and her colleagues were in the field studying how life colonizes in fresh lava 36 00:02:24,810 --> 00:02:29,480 Earth it turns out has a lot of excellent, what we call, analog environments 37 00:02:29,480 --> 00:02:32,620 – places that are similar enough to some of these other worlds 38 00:02:32,620 --> 00:02:37,090 that we can conduct some tests and we can do some analysis here 39 00:02:37,090 --> 00:02:39,090 Now they’re not perfect, of course. 40 00:02:39,090 --> 00:02:44,670 They’re not going to be exactly like Europa, but we can still learn a lot by testing in these environments 41 00:02:44,670 --> 00:02:48,860 Some of these places include Antarctica and the Arctic Circle 42 00:02:48,860 --> 00:02:53,060 But there are other places too – Alaska, Greenland and even Iceland 43 00:02:53,060 --> 00:02:58,450 Any place where you have a lot of ice, because guess what the surface of Europa is made of...a lot of ice! 44 00:02:58,450 --> 00:02:59,020 45 00:02:59,020 --> 00:03:02,480 Studying the cryosphere doesn’t just have big implications for Earth 46 00:03:02,480 --> 00:03:06,210 It also matters for the frozen worlds in our own cosmic backyard 47 00:03:06,210 --> 00:03:11,910 If we're able to find life, or evidence of past life on a place like Europa 48 00:03:11,910 --> 00:03:15,380 that tells us that not only can life happen in other places 49 00:03:15,380 --> 00:03:20,070 but it's common enough that it happened at least twice in the same tiny solar system 50 00:03:20,070 --> 00:03:26,400 That means that the universe is wide open in terms of how much life we might find 51 00:03:26,400 --> 00:03:28,400 - the types of life we might find! 52 00:03:28,400 --> 00:03:35,940 It would revolutionize how we see ourselves and the possibilities for contact in the universe 53 00:03:35,940 --> 00:03:38,060 It just...it would be amazing 54 00:03:38,060 --> 00:03:43,380 55 00:03:43,380 --> 00:03:45,090 It's so exciting! 56 00:03:45,090 --> 00:03:47,860 57 00:03:47,860 --> 00:03:50,390 On the next episode of Cryosphere 58 00:03:50,390 --> 00:03:53,430 As it flows down the valleys, it actually carves those valleys out 59 00:03:53,430 --> 00:03:57,000 and makes them deeper, and so it creates these beautiful fjords 60 00:03:57,000 --> 00:04:02,710 where the ice flows down, snakes out down to the ocean, or to the lakes, or further inland 61 00:04:02,710 --> 00:04:05,440 and so that ice is flowing, it's moving 62 00:04:05,440 --> 00:04:08,280 Episode Six: High Mountain Glaciers 63 00:04:08,280 --> 00:04:11,284