1 00:00:00,450 --> 00:00:01,450 Tuesday was cold 2 00:00:01,450 --> 00:00:02,830 I almost froze my toes 3 00:00:02,830 --> 00:00:05,190 What's it gonna be next week who knows 4 00:00:05,190 --> 00:00:06,440 That's climate 5 00:00:06,440 --> 00:00:08,610 Oh, that's the climate you got 6 00:00:08,610 --> 00:00:10,110 You take a bunch of weather 7 00:00:10,110 --> 00:00:11,230 and you average it together 8 00:00:11,230 --> 00:00:13,520 and you're doin' the climate rock 9 00:00:13,520 --> 00:00:20,280 10 00:00:20,280 --> 00:00:23,290 NASA Explorers 11 00:00:23,290 --> 00:00:24,110 12 00:00:24,110 --> 00:00:26,260 Cryosphere 13 00:00:26,260 --> 00:00:27,990 14 00:00:27,990 --> 00:00:30,040 Glacial Pace 15 00:00:30,040 --> 00:00:33,730 Episode Four 16 00:00:33,730 --> 00:00:38,330 17 00:00:38,330 --> 00:00:42,530 “At a glacial pace” – it means something’s happening so slowly 18 00:00:42,530 --> 00:00:44,840 you can barely tell it’s happening at all. 19 00:00:44,840 --> 00:00:50,790 That used to describe the very incremental movement glaciers and ice sheets experienced each year. 20 00:00:50,790 --> 00:00:52,950 But now, that’s changing. 21 00:00:52,950 --> 00:00:57,650 We’re tagging along with three NASA scientists to understand the different lengths they go 22 00:00:57,650 --> 00:01:00,270 to not only investigate glaciers and ice sheets, 23 00:01:00,270 --> 00:01:05,630 but also communicate their often-complicated science, to the public. 24 00:01:05,630 --> 00:01:07,550 First, let’s get oriented 25 00:01:07,550 --> 00:01:14,510 Ice sheets, in pink, pretty much occur in only two places – Antarctica and Greenland. 26 00:01:14,510 --> 00:01:18,940 Glaciers, in yellow, play a key role draining melt off the ice sheet 27 00:01:18,940 --> 00:01:24,510 Glaciers are also found in the high mountains…but we’ll get to those in another episode. 28 00:01:24,510 --> 00:01:27,790 So we know that something is happening in Greenland right now, 29 00:01:27,790 --> 00:01:31,290 that is unprecedented in the last several thousand years. 30 00:01:31,290 --> 00:01:33,160 31 00:01:33,160 --> 00:01:37,200 That’s Dr. Josh Willis, oceanographer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 32 00:01:37,200 --> 00:01:42,740 Josh and his team are tackling one of the major environmental challenges of the 21st century 33 00:01:42,740 --> 00:01:47,770 trying to answer fundamental questions about how melting glaciers impact sea level rise. 34 00:01:47,770 --> 00:01:48,600 35 00:01:48,600 --> 00:01:53,030 With my mission, Oceans Melting Greenland, or “OMG” for short, 36 00:01:53,030 --> 00:01:59,130 we’re trying to understand just how much of Greenland’s melt is caused by the oceans. 37 00:01:59,130 --> 00:01:59,620 38 00:01:59,620 --> 00:02:03,260 Along with being one of NASA’s top scientists working on the cryosphere, 39 00:02:03,260 --> 00:02:08,960 Josh is passionate about demystifying climate change in typically unconventional ways. 40 00:02:08,960 --> 00:02:13,030 I think by reaching out to people with a little bit of humor, a little bit of fun, 41 00:02:13,030 --> 00:02:18,060 maybe a song, you really have the opportunity to help people understand 42 00:02:18,060 --> 00:02:20,400 and come to terms with what we’re doing to our planet. 43 00:02:20,400 --> 00:02:24,000 Because it's definitely happening and it's definitely a big deal 44 00:02:24,000 --> 00:02:25,600 and we need to start preparing for it 45 00:02:25,600 --> 00:02:31,040 46 00:02:31,040 --> 00:02:37,550 Down at the opposite pole, Dr. Kelly Brunt is getting ready for a major expedition. 47 00:02:37,550 --> 00:02:40,380 In December and January this coming year, 48 00:02:40,380 --> 00:02:47,460 I’ll actually be in Antarctica down near the south pole collecting ground-based GPS data. 49 00:02:47,460 --> 00:02:51,340 This is actually Kelly’s second expedition to the south pole. 50 00:02:51,340 --> 00:02:54,800 The first occurred in December and January of last year. 51 00:02:54,800 --> 00:02:58,830 Both surveys are critical and will help validate data collected by 52 00:02:58,830 --> 00:03:01,970 NASA’s airborne campaign, Operation IceBridge 53 00:03:01,970 --> 00:03:05,440 and the recently launched satellite mission ICESat-2. 54 00:03:05,440 --> 00:03:10,790 All three of these layers, that ground-based, that airborne and the satellite are all tied together. 55 00:03:10,790 --> 00:03:14,290 The ground-based helps validate both the satellite and the airborne 56 00:03:14,290 --> 00:03:17,020 helps give us more validation data for the satellites 57 00:03:17,020 --> 00:03:19,940 but also a bigger story with respect to the depth 58 00:03:19,940 --> 00:03:23,270 of the ice sheet and what’s going on underneath the surface. 59 00:03:23,270 --> 00:03:26,180 While some scientists are taking measurements in the field, 60 00:03:26,180 --> 00:03:29,980 others are looking for answers in physics and lines of code. 61 00:03:29,980 --> 00:03:36,480 For me, these projections that we’re doing, they do have a very personal meaning. 62 00:03:36,480 --> 00:03:40,040 Dr. Sophie Nowicki is an ice sheet modeler. 63 00:03:40,040 --> 00:03:45,550 That means she and her team have the important job of forecasting how ice will change the future 64 00:03:45,550 --> 00:03:49,150 which also predicts changes in sea level rise. 65 00:03:49,150 --> 00:03:53,800 It’s a job she doesn’t take lightly, especially since urban planning and infrastructure 66 00:03:53,800 --> 00:03:58,620 use her team’s models to make decisions about the future and safety of their communities. 67 00:03:58,620 --> 00:04:02,100 When we make those projections that are one hundred years in the future, 68 00:04:02,100 --> 00:04:05,440 a hundred years can seem so far away – like I don’t have to worry about it, 69 00:04:05,440 --> 00:04:06,330 it’s just too far. 70 00:04:06,330 --> 00:04:07,940 But actually, they’re not. 71 00:04:07,940 --> 00:04:15,030 It’s really that the future we’re looking at that our children or grandchildren will see to experience. 72 00:04:15,030 --> 00:04:17,350 Whether is learning to communicate in new ways, 73 00:04:17,350 --> 00:04:20,810 traversing a swath of Antarctica in a massive piston bully 74 00:04:20,810 --> 00:04:24,460 or taking responsibly for an impactful climate forecast, 75 00:04:24,460 --> 00:04:28,730 our NASA scientists are pushing the limits of discovery every day. 76 00:04:28,730 --> 00:04:33,560 But on a very human level, they’re people with families and friends who have a stake 77 00:04:33,560 --> 00:04:37,810 in finding out why and how the planet is changing as rapidly as it is. 78 00:04:37,810 --> 00:04:42,280 79 00:04:42,280 --> 00:04:44,930 On the next episode of Cryosphere 80 00:04:44,930 --> 00:04:47,890 Every place, at least so far, that we have found life 81 00:04:47,890 --> 00:04:49,720 we've found water along with it 82 00:04:49,720 --> 00:04:53,620 and so when we try to understand the thresholds for life 83 00:04:53,620 --> 00:04:57,570 where life might exist, elsewhere in our solar system and the universe 84 00:04:57,570 --> 00:04:59,800 water is one of those things that we look for 85 00:04:59,800 --> 00:05:02,900 Episode Five: Icy Moons 86 00:05:02,900 --> 00:05:06,239