1 00:00:00,000 --> 00:00:01,380 2 00:00:01,400 --> 00:00:04,730 Nitrogen oxides and ozone measurement. 3 00:00:04,750 --> 00:00:06,410 It's built for this aircraft, 4 00:00:06,430 --> 00:00:07,240 recently, 5 00:00:07,260 --> 00:00:09,350 so these are its maiden flights. 6 00:00:09,370 --> 00:00:11,510 And we're measuring four different things 7 00:00:11,530 --> 00:00:13,880 simultaneously every 10th of a second 8 00:00:13,900 --> 00:00:14,830 in the atmosphere, 9 00:00:14,850 --> 00:00:18,980 so about every 100 feet as the aircraft travels. 10 00:00:19,000 --> 00:00:20,490 The things we emit, 11 00:00:20,510 --> 00:00:22,060 including these things down here 12 00:00:22,080 --> 00:00:23,310 that we're measuring, 13 00:00:23,330 --> 00:00:24,760 drive ozone photochemistry 14 00:00:24,780 --> 00:00:26,230 in the atmosphere. 15 00:00:26,250 --> 00:00:29,060 So power plants, tailpipes of cars, 16 00:00:29,080 --> 00:00:31,670 your backyard bar-b-que, forest fires, 17 00:00:31,690 --> 00:00:33,040 make these nitrogen oxides. 18 00:00:33,060 --> 00:00:34,470 They're reactive, 19 00:00:34,490 --> 00:00:36,340 and they cook along in the sunlight 20 00:00:36,360 --> 00:00:38,080 in the atmosphere to make ozone, 21 00:00:38,100 --> 00:00:39,620 as part of the ozone recipe. 22 00:00:39,640 --> 00:00:40,830 It's a pollutant 23 00:00:40,850 --> 00:00:42,250 and it affects people's health 24 00:00:42,270 --> 00:00:45,330 and it affects the viability of plants, 25 00:00:45,350 --> 00:00:49,250 and it's also a substantial greenhouse gas. 26 00:00:49,270 --> 00:00:52,110 It couples to both air quality and to climate. 27 00:00:52,130 --> 00:00:54,650 So this is how we try to look at our data. 28 00:00:54,670 --> 00:00:56,280 We flew up and down and up and down 29 00:00:56,300 --> 00:00:57,800 on this black trace. 30 00:00:57,820 --> 00:00:59,980 And the ozone has a vertical structure 31 00:01:00,000 --> 00:01:01,870 shown here in blue, 32 00:01:01,890 --> 00:01:03,780 and the nitrogen oxides we're measuring 33 00:01:03,800 --> 00:01:05,330 are shown here in red. 34 00:01:05,350 --> 00:01:07,880 You can see that very similarly, 35 00:01:07,900 --> 00:01:08,980 as we're heading south, 36 00:01:09,000 --> 00:01:11,030 going up and down, 37 00:01:11,050 --> 00:01:12,930 you kind of get this decrease 38 00:01:12,950 --> 00:01:14,680 as you get closer to the equator, 39 00:01:14,700 --> 00:01:15,830 and all of a sudden 40 00:01:15,850 --> 00:01:16,680 the ozone you see here 41 00:01:16,700 --> 00:01:17,410 and the ozone you see here 42 00:01:17,430 --> 00:01:19,770 is missing at the highest altitudes 43 00:01:19,790 --> 00:01:21,180 very close to the equator. 44 00:01:21,200 --> 00:01:23,320 The contrast between north and south 45 00:01:23,340 --> 00:01:24,930 is going to tell us a lot about 46 00:01:24,950 --> 00:01:27,330 how the large sources in the north, 47 00:01:27,350 --> 00:01:29,390 of human pollution, 48 00:01:29,410 --> 00:01:30,640 affect the global atmosphere 49 00:01:30,660 --> 00:01:33,780 differently in the south, with fewer sources, 50 00:01:33,800 --> 00:01:35,250 and different hemispheres 51 00:01:35,270 --> 00:01:37,250 will have different seasons as well. 52 00:01:37,270 --> 00:01:39,710 You see this really boring stretch down here, 53 00:01:39,730 --> 00:01:41,480 down south, close to the equator 54 00:01:41,500 --> 00:01:43,470 in Southern Hemispheric air. 55 00:01:43,490 --> 00:01:45,050 And that little line looks really flat, 56 00:01:45,070 --> 00:01:46,600 but if you zoom in, 57 00:01:46,620 --> 00:01:48,970 one of the many many things we're going to 58 00:01:48,990 --> 00:01:50,930 hope to be able to do with these data 59 00:01:50,950 --> 00:01:53,480 is to say how fast does this gas, 60 00:01:53,500 --> 00:01:56,310 this greenhouse gas, this pollutant gas, ozone, 61 00:01:56,330 --> 00:01:58,230 stick to the ocean surface 62 00:01:58,250 --> 00:01:59,690 and go away from the atmosphere. 63 00:01:59,710 --> 00:02:01,420 And that's a really key thing 64 00:02:01,440 --> 00:02:03,280 to get right in the global climate 65 00:02:03,300 --> 00:02:05,880 and global chemistry models. 66 00:02:05,900 --> 00:02:08,842