1 00:00:00,000 --> 00:00:02,160 tone 2 00:00:02,180 --> 00:00:04,160 3 00:00:04,180 --> 00:00:06,160 music 4 00:00:06,180 --> 00:00:09,380 Michael Hesse: The MMS Mission is a mission 5 00:00:09,400 --> 00:00:12,380 consisting of 4 spacecraft which will fly in close constellation 6 00:00:12,400 --> 00:00:15,450 to measure a process called magnetic reconnection. 7 00:00:15,470 --> 00:00:18,620 John Dorelli: The universe is full of plasma and it's full of magnetic fields, 8 00:00:18,640 --> 00:00:21,790 and all over the place in the universe, 9 00:00:21,810 --> 00:00:24,800 you have one plasma colliding with another. An example of that is 10 00:00:24,820 --> 00:00:27,980 the solar wind coming in and colliding with Earth's magnetosphere. 11 00:00:28,000 --> 00:00:31,440 The magnetic energy in the plasma, some fraction of that 12 00:00:31,460 --> 00:00:34,560 of the magnetic energy is converted very rapidly into plasma energy. 13 00:00:34,580 --> 00:00:37,600 You can think of it as kind of like a magnetic explosion. 14 00:00:37,620 --> 00:00:40,600 The reason this is important is 15 00:00:40,620 --> 00:00:43,740 these explosions drive a lot of the weather 16 00:00:43,760 --> 00:00:46,750 patterns that we see in the magnetosphere, so what space scientists 17 00:00:46,770 --> 00:00:49,920 like to refer to as space weather. 18 00:00:49,940 --> 00:00:52,930 These space weather phenomena can have impact 19 00:00:52,950 --> 00:00:56,090 on our every day lives. It can actually affect communications 20 00:00:56,110 --> 00:00:59,170 satellites, the power grid. So, we would really like to understand 21 00:00:59,190 --> 00:01:02,180 how these magnetic explosions work. 22 00:01:02,200 --> 00:01:05,260 Michael Hesse: We need to measure magnetic reconnection in more than one location. 23 00:01:05,280 --> 00:01:08,340 Basically, how it varies in space, how it varies 24 00:01:08,360 --> 00:01:11,530 all 3 spacial dimensions. That requires a 25 00:01:11,550 --> 00:01:14,700 a tetrahedron. The additional, fantastic benefit 26 00:01:14,720 --> 00:01:17,760 that that provides is that it will actually enable 27 00:01:17,780 --> 00:01:21,050 us to recognize that we are looking at a reconnection region 28 00:01:21,070 --> 00:01:24,060 much easier than a single spacecraft. John Dorelli: The idea situation 29 00:01:24,080 --> 00:01:27,220 we would like the 4 spacecraft to kind of be surrounding 30 00:01:27,240 --> 00:01:30,610 this region where the explosion is happening. 31 00:01:30,630 --> 00:01:33,780 The separation of the spacecraft is about 10 - 100 kilometers, which makes 32 00:01:33,800 --> 00:01:36,850 it may seem like a long distance, but in terms of the magnetosphere, 33 00:01:36,870 --> 00:01:39,850 which is absolutely huge, this is really a microscopic 34 00:01:39,870 --> 00:01:42,850 region we are trying to cover. Micheal Hesse: MSS has, in a nutshell, 35 00:01:42,870 --> 00:01:46,220 2 orbital phases which are designed to study 36 00:01:46,240 --> 00:01:49,220 reconnection. 37 00:01:49,240 --> 00:01:52,470 John Dorelli: On the day side, you have situation where the solar wind is just constantly running 38 00:01:52,490 --> 00:01:55,730 into Earth's magnetic field. This is really great for MMS, 39 00:01:55,750 --> 00:01:58,880 because we know at some point MMS is going 40 00:01:58,900 --> 00:02:02,030 encounter this region. Our hope is that 41 00:02:02,050 --> 00:02:05,220 since this process is always happening we are gonna get lucky 42 00:02:05,240 --> 00:02:08,300 and actually fly right through the magnetic 43 00:02:08,320 --> 00:02:11,300 explosion as it is happening. Now, on the nightside, 44 00:02:11,320 --> 00:02:14,300 the situation is a little bit different. What happens you have a more 45 00:02:14,320 --> 00:02:17,520 gradual build up of magnetic energy in the tale, 46 00:02:17,540 --> 00:02:20,700 and these reconnection processes, these magnetic explosions, 47 00:02:20,720 --> 00:02:23,710 can just sort of pop off randomly 48 00:02:23,730 --> 00:02:26,840 we don't really know when it's gonna happen or when it's gonna happen in the tail. 49 00:02:26,860 --> 00:02:30,010 Michael Hesse: We need to understand both of those, if we want to understand how the magnetophere works 50 00:02:30,030 --> 00:02:33,210 And we believe that both of those scenarios are also very important for us 51 00:02:33,230 --> 00:02:36,220 for other applications, such as on the sun, 52 00:02:36,240 --> 00:02:39,400 in the solar wind, in planetary magnetospheres, 53 00:02:39,420 --> 00:02:42,400 and many astrophysical objects 54 00:02:42,420 --> 00:02:45,470 as well as in the laboratory. John Dorelli: We hope that is going to allow us to improve 55 00:02:45,490 --> 00:02:48,470 our models so that we can put the right physics in it 56 00:02:48,490 --> 00:02:51,620 and actually make predictions about where and when reconnection 57 00:02:51,640 --> 00:02:54,800 is going to happen, and this will help us make our space weather models more predicatively powerful 58 00:02:54,820 --> 00:02:57,860 The instruments that are actually going to be measuring 59 00:02:57,880 --> 00:03:01,040 the particles in space are collecting them much more rapidly 60 00:03:01,060 --> 00:03:04,060 at a much higher cadence than they have 61 00:03:04,080 --> 00:03:07,060 on previous missions, by about a factor of 100. 62 00:03:07,080 --> 00:03:10,100 Whereas it would, you know a previous generation particle instrument 63 00:03:10,120 --> 00:03:13,170 about 3 or 4 seconds 64 00:03:13,190 --> 00:03:16,230 to build up a whole picture of the sky, it's going to take 65 00:03:16,250 --> 00:03:19,240 MMS about 30 milliseconds. 66 00:03:19,260 --> 00:03:22,240 So, it really is sort of game changing technology. 67 00:03:22,260 --> 00:03:25,450 music 68 00:03:25,470 --> 00:03:28,540 beeping 69 00:03:28,560 --> 00:03:34,928 beeping