WEBVTT FILE 1 00:00:00.010 --> 00:00:04.090 [ music ] 2 00:00:04.110 --> 00:00:08.090 We all know that NOAA satellites help 3 00:00:08.110 --> 00:00:12.100 us forecast weather on Earth. But did you know that some weather satellites 4 00:00:12.120 --> 00:00:16.140 also forecast weather in space? 5 00:00:16.160 --> 00:00:20.230 [ music ] 6 00:00:20.250 --> 00:00:24.240 [ music ] [whoosh] 7 00:00:24.260 --> 00:00:28.270 So why is 8 00:00:28.290 --> 00:00:32.300 forecasting space weather important? The changing environmental conditions 9 00:00:32.320 --> 00:00:36.320 from the Sun's atmosphere are known as space weather. Space weather is caused by 10 00:00:36.340 --> 00:00:40.330 electromagnetic radiation and charged particles being released from solar storms. 11 00:00:40.350 --> 00:00:44.390 Changes in the magnetic fields and a continuous flow of solar particles during a 12 00:00:44.410 --> 00:00:48.410 powerful storm headed to Earth could cause disruption to communications and result 13 00:00:48.430 --> 00:00:52.410 in exposure to dangerous radiation. Space weather 14 00:00:52.430 --> 00:00:56.420 can disrupt high-frequency radio communications used by pilots. 15 00:00:56.440 --> 00:01:00.450 During geomagnetic storms, airplanes flying over the poles are diverted or rerouted 16 00:01:00.470 --> 00:01:04.460 so they don't lose critical positioning and communication with air traffic 17 00:01:04.480 --> 00:01:08.470 control. Nowadays, farmers rely strongly on 18 00:01:08.490 --> 00:01:12.490 high-precision GPS satellites to determine what to plant and where to plant it. 19 00:01:12.510 --> 00:01:16.510 If GPS technology is affected by space weather, it could produce faulty coordinates, 20 00:01:16.530 --> 00:01:20.520 resulting in losses for farmers. 21 00:01:20.540 --> 00:01:24.530 During a solar storm, satellite TV, satellite radio, and other 22 00:01:24.550 --> 00:01:28.560 satellite-based communications are at risk. Satellite operators have to avoid 23 00:01:28.580 --> 00:01:32.640 certain operations, like uploading new software or executing complicated 24 00:01:32.660 --> 00:01:36.660 maneuvers, because the data could be corrupted, or the entire satellite could even 25 00:01:36.680 --> 00:01:40.690 be damaged. Electric power workers are also 26 00:01:40.710 --> 00:01:44.720 affected by space weather, because large storms can induce currents in the electrical grid. 27 00:01:44.740 --> 00:01:48.730 overloading transformers, and causing massive blackouts. 28 00:01:48.750 --> 00:01:52.740 Space weather can also bring damaging radiation to 29 00:01:52.760 --> 00:01:56.740 astronauts in space. Astronauts need to know when they should avoid space-walks, 30 00:01:56.760 --> 00:02:00.840 and stay in better-shielded areas of the International Space Station. 31 00:02:00.860 --> 00:02:04.930 Early warning for these users is absolutely critical, which is 32 00:02:04.950 --> 00:02:08.950 why scientists and forecasters monitor GOES and other satellite data 33 00:02:08.970 --> 00:02:12.990 around the clock. The next generation of GOES 34 00:02:13.010 --> 00:02:17.040 weather satellites will provide the improved the data that space weather forecasters need 35 00:02:17.060 --> 00:02:21.070 to detect initial solar flare eruptions and issue critical early warnings. 36 00:02:21.090 --> 00:02:25.170 GOES-R data will also help forecasters measure radiation from the storm, 37 00:02:25.190 --> 00:02:29.190 and determine the final impact. 38 00:02:29.210 --> 00:02:33.380 Loaded with improved space weather instruments, the GOES-R series of satellites will provide 39 00:02:33.400 --> 00:02:37.380 continuous delivery of crucial information to all users impacted by weather, not only 40 00:02:37.400 --> 00:02:41.570 here on Earth, but also in space. 41 00:02:41.590 --> 00:02:45.600 [ music ] 42 00:02:45.620 --> 00:02:49.780 [ beep beep... beep beep... beep beep... ] 43 00:02:49.800 --> 00:02:53.870 44 00:02:53.890 --> 00:02:57.880 45 00:02:57.900 --> 00:03:04.164