Good afternoon! At NOAA SARSAT we were responsible basically for monitoring emergency alerts and then setting those alerts directly through our ground systems and our communication systems to search and rescue authorities. And in the US that would be the Coast Guard or the Air Force because they're the ones that are mandated to do SAR in the United States. Now what do I mean by distress alerts? Basically if you are in trouble anywhere in the world and you have a specific device that I am going to talk about here in a minute, you can activate that device and our satellites will locate your position and then send that to search and rescue forces and they will be able to find you. So these are the devices I was talking about the Emergency Beacons, and some already existed before this program. These are Emergency Locator Transmitters and they were located... they were used on aircraft, even before this system. And the limiting factor there was another airplane had to be up and monitor the frequency that these ELTs were giving off, so it was a much smaller search area than you have now with the satellites, because basically with the satellites you can search the entire earth, and with the aircraft you can only search specific areas and you had to worry about weather and you had to worry about fuel and you had to worry about your budget for the various search and rescue agencies. But now, being a worldwide program monitored by satellite, it's a... offered a lot of help and assistance to people over the years, and the different types of beacons have drone and start to used aircraft now. They have beacons for ships. These are called EPIRBs (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons). If you have ever watched the Deadliest Catch you hear some beeping going off on the radio or something, they're talking about these, these EPIRBs. And now, even individuals like if you are a hiker going off in the Grand Canyon or if you are a skier out in the rocky mountains or a kayaker down in the Florida Keys or something, you can wear one of these on your person so if you get in trouble that you can activate it and somebody will comply to. This has become a cottage industry and companies are already involved with the search and rescue equipment like rescue lights and PFDs life jackets that sort of thing, and started manufacturing these, and there is about a million and a half worldwide in the population right now. So some other advancements that have happened since the experiments with Nimbus. We started using geostationary satellites as well as the polar-orbiting, and this gave some, some better capabilities for one, we've got a much larger search area at any given time. With the orbiting satellites, there was a 2500, well... yeah, 2500-mile diameter footprint. So if you were in trouble and you turned on your device right after the satellite passed you, then you might be waiting there for a while until that next satellite passed over. So it maybe 20 or 40 minutes after you press that button before we have received that signal to the satellite. Whereas, geostationary has a footprint that is basically almost entire size of the hemisphere, so you know if you are anywhere in North or South America, pretty much as long as you are not near the poles, that geostationary satellite can see almost instantly when you light off your beacon. Another advancement was a few years back, in 80s we had GPS, late 80s early 90s we are able to get the GPS signal put on our beacons. So when you turn on the beacon there is a GPS chip in there, they can initialize with the GPS satellite and then send that GPS position straight to the geostationary satellite or the polar-orbiting satellite, and we would be able to have the type of position, information we got previously with the Nimbus-derived location protocols and also with the GPS protocol, so the Coast Guard gets both of those types of information still. On the program's side SARAT has grown a lot. It started as an international program and it's still international, there is a lot of international collaboration, international organizations involved with the UN, make recommendations for carriage so for instance the International Maritime Organization will mandate carriage for commercial ships for the... so they're involved with my EPIRBs and the International Civil Aviation Organization or ICAO will be involved with mandating the use of Emergency Locator Transmitters and then you have the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) which basically tells, you know, the world to stay away from that 406 MHz frequencies which is what our beacons use and it protects that frequency from radio stations and communications companies from using that frequency so it's dedicated for research and rescue throughout the world. And likewise talking about... we talked earlier about how this was developed with the United States, Canada and France and Russia at the time and if you remember back in the 70s, we weren't too friendly with Russia on those things but we were able to find agreement here; now that there are over 43 countries that participate directly with this program and they actually have, you know, input into how the program is run but there's even more countries involved with the search and rescue aspect. So all these countries in green are actually receiving the alerts but they may push that information out to those countries around them to their various search and rescue organizations. So you know, basically this entire map should be green with some exceptions possibly North Korea and Iran or something might not be onboard but pretty much the entire world is tied in to this system now for search and rescue. Then on a national level, you know several agencies, government's use, NOAA has oversight now, NASA developed it, but since they were weather satellites under the auspice of NOAA that source that program came under us, so we coordinate with again the Air Force or inland SAR, the Coast Guard for Maritime and we still work with NASA, there is a group over here that does research and development for SARSAT and we coordinate on a daily basis well, at least a quarterly basis with meeting and such with them here, and I think Lisa was Dr. Lisa Mazzuca hits that, she is with NASA and then on the flip-side SARSAT is directly involved with the National Search and Rescue Committee and we are involved with National Search and Rescue Plan so we advise them with SARSAT developments. SARSAT has been seamlessly integrated and to the Search and Rescue Community within the United States. You can see here that Air Force and the Coast Guard have lines drawn for their responsibilities, here are the various Coast Guard districts here and what happens is when we get an alert it goes through our servers electronically so we don't even see it, and then it goes to the Air Force and Coast Guard Search and Rescue programs; so here you see a screen-shot of the Coast Guard's Search and Rescue Program that they use and these are actual alerts that are from our satellites that just pop-up on their screen and they can gather all the information right on the finger tips. As we saw earlier you can basically be in the most remote parts of the world and the satellites can locate you and here is an example. This young lady named Abby Sunderland wanted to be the youngest person; she is the youngest person or youngest female, I am not sure which to circumnavigate the globe alone. So she set out and she made it all the way to the South Indian Ocean and then she got involved in this huge storm, with 30 and 40 foot seas. Her boat rolled over several times, went underwater several times, popped back up, her masts broken half and she lost most of her communications. She had a satphone but for some reason wasn't able to use it, to call out, but she did have the EPIRB, and it did what it was supposed to do and they were able to find her. So we were talking about remoteness, the closest land she was near, you know what, it's about as far away from land as you can possibly get. So she had a better chance to going down to Antarctica than going over there to Australia. Anyways she was so grateful, she came by to visit us at our office in Suitland and to learn more about the system, so here is our building here. This is the back of our building but if you went over to the front you would see three smaller dishes and those are SARSAT dishes that we use right above our building. So that was just one example. Since these numbers are from 1982 when we formally took over the program but... in the United States there has been over 7400 saves, at worldwide there have been over 37,000 so generally once a year around 250 saves occurred because of SARSAT, and we count those if SARSAT was the only or the primary use of finding that location. So someone calls Coast Guard on radio, and then their boat sinks but their Coast Guard respond because of the radio contact, then we won't count it. But if the Coast Guard responds only because of the location information from the EPIRB or ELT or PLB then we count it as the same. So in the U.S. about 250 a year are saved and then worldwide about 2000 a year are saved, and that number keeps going up with the amount of beacons that are bought per year. So it's getting even more-and-more as the beacon population increases. NOAA is reaching... well our NOAA weather satellites are reaching the end of their service life, and so for the past 30 somewhat years, we have been using basically the same technologies that were available from the Nimbus program, so it's been a very long and productive use of that technology and the next set of satellites that are going to go up where we can put SARSAT equipment on our GPS satellites. And since this is an international program we have other international partners, so Europe's Galileo satellites are similar to our GPS, their global navigation system will have this on it as well, and the Russian Glonass system will also have it, and that's Russia's version of GPS positioning system. What this will give SARSAT is better location availability, when these satellites are up, there will be about 72 satellites in the constellation. And with that number of satellites, anywhere on earth should be in view of four satellites at any given time. So basically the entire earth will have 100% coverage, 100% of the time with the MEOSAR system. So as soon as someone turns on their beacon now then almost instantly we will know within a couple of meters where someone is, versus a couple of hundred yards or couple of several kilometers. So we have gone from several kilometers, to several hundred yards to 2 or 3 meters of accuracy and the timing keeps getting better too. Also, another advantage is the size of the 15:07 circle for like a better word to call it. If you see the polar-orbiting satellites are set 2500 mile diameter. Here you have almost as large of a diameter as the geostationary satellites, and then imagine 72 of those overlapping each other. So much more capability. So we've had a 30-year run of using the... Nimbus technology and now reaching the end of that and going ahead for 30 more years. And that's all thanks to NASA and their development team and we certainly are better off for having it. Thank you! [Applause]