When I was asked to do this I wondered why was I picked, because there were six project managers in Nimbus, I was the last, and then I checked out and found that there were only two of us living; and Harry Press is out in Oregon, so that left me. So what I am going to do today is cover three areas; one is the Nimbus background, the history of the start; second would be some First, but I think Chuck has done a better job of covering First, so I'll go through that really quickly; and third will be my observations during the period of time that I was the Project Manager for Nimbus and Landsat. And the Nimbus story begins with the first US meteorology satellite at the Army Signal Corps up at Fort Monmouth, when Bill Stroud proposed an instrument, a cloud cover measuring instrument for Vanguard. It was one of the five or six instruments that were chosen for Vanguard; it was flown over the various nations. It did fly in April... February of '59 and operated for 20 days on a battery. It was not a solar cell satellite. That was the forerunner of TIROS, that program, and that was a part of the IGY, International Geophysical Year that started in '57. So it was selected in '57, flew in '59 and then the first TIROS flew of course in April of '60. Well, that crew, the Bill Stroud and company transferred to Goddard when Goddard was being formed, various groups came together, were brought in mass; first one being the group from NRL, which was the Vanguard Group, I came in after that. And the next one was the group out of Fort Monmouth; it was about 14 or 15 engineers and scientistss and they came to Goddard in April of '59. That team that came down from Monmouth consisted of Stroud, John Licht, Rudy Hanel, Rudy Stampfl, Bill Nordberg and Bill Bandeen; they actually did the design and architecture for Nimbus, so they were key in getting it started. And I am sure there are others, but I got this history from some of Ralph's stuff and some talking to few individuals. So if I left anybody out, it was no intention to do that. Soon after that became, Stroud and Ed Cortright, who was in headquarters, did a tour of the United States finding out what the interest was in follow-on satellite, a research satellite, and they then came back and developed the specs and the objectives for it. So that was later in '59. By '60, fiscal year '60, which would have been midyear of '59, it was... Nimbus was established as an R&D program to serve as a TIROS replacement. There were going to be three satellites; one of them paid for by NASA and two by what was then ESSA, the Environmental Satellite Services Administration. I knew Ralph would get me straight. And that got us started, there was a kick... I am sorry, I was worried about going backwards, I didn't go forward. Okay. All right! Well, we're with it now. Well, problems developed, as always happens on satellite programs, none of us have been on one that didn't, certainly in the beginning, and these problems caused ESSA to drop out in '63. So Nimbus at that point then became an R&D platform for satellites with remote sensing. It was originally conceived as an in-house project, and some of you around here in those days, there was a lot of in-house activity going on. There were in most times three or four explorers being worked on and one or two observatories, either parts or all being worked on. So it wouldn't be unusual to bring... to make Nimbus as an in-house program. But it wasn't, and of course it was contracted out with General Electric. It was... that design that was developed by the Stroud team was really a 5 foot diameter ring, which would hold the electronics and the base then would hold the instruments. So as you've seen in the models around here, the instruments pointed down from there. It was mentioned earlier also, the sun-synchronous orbit was selected to provide observation, continuity, and repeatability about a 1,000 kilometers circular orbit. Launches were from Vandenberg to ensure we would get the sun-synchronous orbit and the midnight... launch at midnight to get to noon equator, ascending node orbit. The first four Nimbuses were on the Thorad-Agena; the last three, 5, 6, 7 were on augmented Thor-Delta or Delta as we call it in those days. As you've heard already, that each mission was progressively higher resolution, more complex; if Nimbus-1 had three instruments, Nimbus-7 had nine. Nimbus-7 was designated as environmental monitoring satellite. I remember when I was brought on board that was something that was pointed out to me was a difference from the previous missions, they hadn't used that terminology, but it really was a predecessor to the earth observation satellites and the iSat that is ongoing today. As you've already heard, there has been... over the 30 year period 33 instruments have been on board the Nimbus-7 Nimbus satellites. The operating lifetimes are kind of interesting; the first mission, and I find this surprising, but that's what Ralph's history tells me, had a six month lifetime. It did not meet it of course; it had the problem with the solar ray drive locked up. But 4, 5, 6, and 7 had five year lifetimes and they all went beyond that, all the way out, and as far as the Nimbus 7, 15 years. So a lot of good data was gathered out of those seven missions over that 30 year period, which would have only provided you with a dismantled mission lifetime, far less good use of this. The Nimbus-1, and Chuck has touched on some of these, Nimbus-4 was the first one with an onboard computer using TI integrated circuits, and it was the first civilian satellite with three-axis stabilization to one degree accuracy. There probably were satellites that they don't talk about in open forum that had a greater pointing capacity, but this was the first in the civil satellite. And the first RTG that was on Nimbus 2, then of course was lost, and then recovered, as was mentioned earlier. Thank you. Okay. Continuous operations, and continuous means ongoing, began with, at least on these three instruments, the IRIS, the BUV and the TOMS. The IRIS started in April of '69, the BUV on April of '70 and in October of '78 the first TOMS, the ozone mapping instrument. The TWERLE RAMS, which we'll hear more about later on, was first to do... for the forerunner of international search and rescue. They never called it that, but actually the Nimbus basic spacecraft was what I would call the first multipurpose spacecraft. There were ten of them; three of them for Landsats and seven for Nimbus. And in those days I don't know of any other program that had that length of missions using the same spacecraft, same basic spacecraft design. The Nimbus-7 measures sea surface temperatures; I am not sure whether Chuck mentioned that one, but I am sure it's on his chart, and one I'll talk to a little bit later is we did the first field disassembly on Nimbus G or Nimbus-7 later. Now to some of my observations as a Project Manager; it was obvious when I was asked to join the project, and I had never worked on earth-pointing mission, I had been involved with missions that were science missions, looking at either astronomy, high-energy astrophysics or fields and particles in situ measurements. The team I determined very quickly was a very competent, very good team, and I learned something from a fellow named Edwards Deming, who was an expert in... efficiency expert. He is the guy that went to Japan and straightened out their auto industry right after World War II. He said the willing worker will always do the right thing if management doesn't screw them up. And I had determined not to screw them up. And this gang of folks, some of them which are here, were outstanding. There was no problem they couldn't tackle and they had worked it from the basic design, to getting data products out in a timely manner. Something else I found out joining that project is you had at that point four satellites on orbit, plus two, that would be three Nimbuses, one Landsat, and one Landsat and one Nimbus in the assembly stage in preparation for launch. So it was like a whole new ballgame, not only did you have to be concerned with getting the ones on up at Valley Forge built and launched, but you had to worry, is Ralph going to call me in the middle of the night and say that tape recorder stopped or something, but he knew it wouldn't do any good to do that so he didn't do it. Another thing we found that this mission, Nimbus-7 didn't have principal investigators, like earlier missions had, and certainly like... not like the science missions I'd been used to. Instead, they were the experiment teams and they defined the estimate requirements, they defined how it should be built and tested, and they also defined the algorithms for taking the radiances and for converting it into useful information. So they went cradle to grave. And those were very, very good competent teams, anywhere from three to seven people per team. Also found that you can never please all the scientists, certainly with giving them enough calibration. I had an occasion on Nimbus-7 when it was going into thermal vacuum, final thermal vacuum test as an integrated observatory, got a call from our guys, who were up there working it. They said, we cannot satisfy one scientist, he will not say we're ready to start thermal vacuum, because he has not had enough calibration. So I grabbed a car and a bottle of Scotch and I went up there to talk to him. It was an interesting conversation, and I thought I was going to have a rebellion, but after about half the Scotch was gone, they were convinced that we'll make it work, because I said, we're going to thermal vacuum and we'll tell the scientist that's the way it is, you'll fly or you don't fly. And I said, by the way, if he were to give you a rough time, he could pretty much chamber with it, but it's probably not a good idea. Well, it turns out that instrument operated for 15 years. So I guess he had enough calibration because he had put out a lot of good information. Another interesting one that... I guess it better I got a call one day from Center Director Bob Cooper. We had already shipped Nimbus G out to the Western Test Range and preparing it for meeting to the Delta, and he said, solder balls had been found in the tape recorder at RCA and those tape recorders are just like the ones on board here in the spacecraft. So disassemble them, take them out and have them inspected. So I go to GE and say, I've been directed that we need to take out those three tape recorders and inspect them. And their reaction was you've got to be kidding? We don't do field disassembly. We never have done field disassembly. And therefore, it will have to be taken back to Valley Forge and disassembled up there and then subjected to a whole new series of tests, and oh, by the way, that's big bucks and whole lots of time. I said, nope, it won't work. Develop me some procedures for taking apart in the field, we will review those procedures, our team will review them with you. If we're satisfied, we will proceed and do it that way. Well, we did, took them out, all three tape recorders. No solder balls were found. Put it back together and just did functional testing, no environmental testing, and we flew. And it operated for 15 years, so I guess that was all right. Another interesting phone call was one morning phone rang and this gentleman says, I am calling from Bar Harbor, Maine. My name is Max Anderson and I am getting ready to fly a balloon across the Atlantic and I hear you guys got something that might be of use to me if I have problems. And I knew the right guy to call, Chuck Cote. And I called Chuck, and he'll tell you the rest of the story later. This is one that probably most people don't believe, but we actually did come in under budget on Nimbus-7. I don't know that any other mission can say that, and it wasn't massive amounts of money, but it was something around a million dollars, which in those days was still decent amount of money; I don't know about today though. One last thing I'll close with, after I took over TDRS, I went down to Johnson Space Center and was talking to the Deputy Director, and he was asking me what had I done before I came on TDRS? And I said, well, most recent experiences with Landsat and Nimbus, launched them last year. He said, oh, that's nice, but that's not really NASA. I mean, I think the scientific discoveries and the technological advancements that we've seen from Nimbus, and still seeing today with programs here at Goddard, that's real NASA. Thank you!