I am a recovery TV meteorologist, I guess you might say. Coevolution might not be the right perspective, Nimbus evolved and then TV weather evolved after that, hanging onto may be the antennas of the solar panels or at least the data feed as forecasters saw the data coming down and trying to figure out that could really help us. I started out in Seattle and any help we had in the 70s was trying to figure out what was coming in from the Pacific would have been a huge help, and obviously very important to us. So coevolution, and the thing I really want to emphasize here is more, the educational aspects that the Nimbus program has really provided us. Okay, we advance here, there we go! So Informal Science Learning and Public Awareness of Science, I think really has been enhanced by the Nimbus projects and the various projects that have come out of the Nimbus project. I sort of found my way here at NASA as a result of trying to do a story about the rescue system, about seven years ago or so, and so that really sort of comes from Nimbus tracking Reindeer back in those early days. Can we have volume on this one? No sound? Anyway, this is what TV looked like before satellite imagery. Look at the set. This is right after Camille, the Katrina of the 1960s, there are no satellite loops, no radar loops, it's magnetic hurricane symbols on a map, dials on the side. Those are magnetic words, you would spend an hour putting up magnetic words on a weather chart. We evolved, started out in Seattle, I was particularly interested in the early images. I would go down to the National Weather Service, take a 4x5 Polaroid of the latest satellite over the Pacific, mostly clouds all the way from Seattle's Japan and go back to the station and show this little 4x5 image on the TV camera, and kept hoping that we'd see a clear spot sometime between September and June in Seattle, forget about it, most of the time it was just great cloudy skies all the way, but sort of a Rorschach inkblot test. In the early days Rory Leep was one of our real heroes. He had a staff of six TV meteorologists and he had a 1966... some of the first images, but that receiver cost his station $11,000. That was above our budget in Seattle, and think, now the quarter a million that they spend on Doppler Radar at the present time, even by 1980, look how crude the satellite imagery was. We have come a long ways. This is the Weather Channel 1982, I was fortunate enough to do a pilot for this about a year ahead of their actual launch to see that I can satellite advertise it. We were thinking in 1982, who is going to watch weather 24x7? But look how crude it was. There was the radar, there was their set, there was their map. Even in 1982, the satellite imagery was just very minimal. Let's take an example of what we are going to show now, sea ice. We have now sea ice in the can, really from 1964 as I understand it from Nimbus. We are looking down on part of the Arctic Ocean here. I might be there somewhere on T3, but maybe not, but by 1983, thanks to Nimbus-7, we were able to really begin to monitor the sea ice, and look what I can do now today with letting the public know about the science of the world. We can... we do live shots now out of NASA Goddard, once a month basically with morning TV forecasters and we give them two minutes or so to ask questions of our scientists, whether it would be ozone hole or Arctic sea ice, and basically part of... oh, there was a movie there, can we play that? Here we are. Part of the informal science education process is Show Me; if you can show me, I can tend to believe it maybe a little quicker. We can actually take people now... thanks to the imagery that we have. Let's start with the Nimbus program to the Arctic and show them, it is melting. We can show them elements of the environment now that we have never clicked before and we can also bring it home in a sense that the 'how' and the 'why' of what's going on, now that we know about the three-dimensional view of the earth and the melting ice and the open ocean, changing the heat budget of different areas of the world, and perhaps affecting the jet stream flow and how that may affect storms like Sandy hitting the East Coast or the polar vortex. A very complicated process but now we have a way. My work really started out about seven years ago at George Mason Climate Change Education which is really earth science education, and the imagery and the data, the database of the imagery, we can show now with NASA and NOAA data is really helpful. In informal science education, what works in museums, zoos or aquariums; aquarium I guess it is, is the aha moment of science, the fact, the concepts, the method, how do scientists do... how do they propose these theories, and then number four, science is a bunch of people working together, it's a social system which sometimes goes wrong. Nimbus B, crashes into the ocean, but we learned from that and we go on. Is TV news still important? Yes, it's still the way most people learned about science. After 12 years of school, what do we learn about science? We have probably learned first on TV. Our general model at George Mason is we have communication practitioners, the broadcast meteorologists and then you have the science experts and then you have the communication scientists, those people who understand how people, really the psychology or social science of how people perceive risk and why they take action during tornadoes or hurricanes. But the content experts of course are key to this. Here is our perfect example of B, Informal Science Education. Science is not perfect. It is a process, peer review, goes back and forth and through news reports. Sometimes we can show people, how human it is, right? And there is the recovery coming in from the ocean. Another example, ocean temperatures; this was the data coming in from Nimbus... well, this is Nimbus-7 I think, about ocean temperatures. Look what we can do now. Can we play this movie? We can show height plus or minus 7 inches, I think it is on this side, and then we've got Rossby and Kelvin waves on the other side. See height and temperature differences. All this visualization now, we can show people and give them a sense of, wow, this is a complicated and very interesting world. We can show the world solidity. Who would have thought? With the satellites that have evolved out of Nimbus that we can show; and Paul will talk more about this, I am sure, the ozone hole, the fact that we could show them the early days, there is a hole, something is missing. People can sense that. They can get it... and now look at the data, all the kinds of data that we can show them and we can even do it on our iPhone. I can take people and say, hey, let's look at... sea surface height around the world and I can make, it's in your pocket, all this coming in from people who were here at NASA, thinking there is data that we can get via satellite. Look at the wonderful informal science education... and do we have sound here, or not? -Not at all? -No. Okay, this is too bad because Mike uses an iPad to show his folks wonderful science, often as NASA science, and he makes a point at the end of this, here is some wonderful science education and also inspiration. I couldn't have written those words better for him the way he said it. But that's a legacy I think of what the Nimbus engineers, scientists, meteorologists, infrared experts, all of you have done and so on behalf of the many, many weather forecasters, I would like to give you a big thanks for doing all the work that you have done. It's really exciting, and look where we are now, we can see it all on our iPhone, on our iPad, so thank you very much!