At first I am going to say what is the Earth Radiation Budget or ERB why is it important? I give a brief history of Nimbus. The Nimbus-6 and 7, what was new and different about that; primary results from the Nimbus-6 and 7; a comparison to the ERBE, which is Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, as opposed to ERB, that was after Nimbus, and some conclusions. All right, what is the Earth Radiation Budget for those who don't know? Here is a diagram showing the globe as a whole, averaged over the entire year and the 342W per meter square of incoming solar radiation on the average and you can see what's happening, it's scattering off of clouds, it's scattering from the earth, it's being absorbed by the surface of the earth, it's being emitted, there is a whole lot of things going on as you can see. But the main thing is, if you look at the 107W per meter square going out from reflected radiation and the 235 outgoing, if you add those two numbers it adds up to 342, which would imply a net radiation of zero which would mean no global warming; not true. There is global warming but this diagram doesn't really show it, but it's different from this. Now why is the Earth Radiation Budget important? First of all it's a driver in the earth's weather and climate, as we will see, accurate data on ERB is important to weather and climate models, and the next surplus and deficit of ERB will tell us where the earth is warming or cooling. Global warming doesn't mean the whole globe is warning, I think you all know that here, but some of it is warming in certain places and it's cooling on other, but on the average it's warming. Here is a slide I got from Professor Vonder Haar who gave this talk 10 years ago and he said that I could use anything of his slides and I would have gladly used some of it, but here is one of his that he presented still meaningful is the radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere, annual radiation budget as a function of latitude, and it shows a surplus of radiation in the tropical area... oh, I didn't want do that, all right... let me go forward... all right, surplus of radiation in tropics and the deficit outside that, and you could see here the amount and space-time distribution is a fundamental driver of the earth's weather and climate because of that surplus and deficit, it's got to go somewhere. All right, here is an early history of measuring the Earth's Radiation Budget. During the 1960s TIROS and the first experimental US Air Force sun-synchronous satellite gave us early low resolution view of the Earth's Radiation Budget. And I have a quote here, I want to read from Verner E. Suomi, it said, we found that the earth was a warmer and darker planet than previously believed; especially in the tropical region we found that 40% more energy must be transported forward by the atmosphere and ocean circulations, that's dramatic, and if true we could better understand and model atmospheric and oceanic circulations, air-sea interactions in both the earth's energy and water cycles, we can do a whole lot better. All right, a brief history of Nimbus ERB going before the Earth Radiation Budget experiment itself from Nimbus-6 and 7 that I was involved in, the Nimbus-2 and 3, Medium-Resolution Infrared Radiometer Experiments at Nimbus-6 and 7 ERB results, they were designed to check, verify and expand the results from these early 1960s and the Nimbus-2 Medium-Resolution Experiment was unfortunately short but did provide the first Medium-Resolution ERB measurements over the polar ranges. Now, the Nimbus-3 Medium-Resolution was a great success and more than a year of pole-to-pole local noon midnight ERB was obtained at medium spatial resolution, great success. Now many regional features were explored and we didn't have before as much, ocean, stratus regions, major deserts Amazoria, you could see, seasonal variations over the continents, you could read this for yourself, and significant differences over the Arctic and Antarctic. Now because the early Nimbus MRI are used 5 spectral bands to estimate the total earth radiation and reflective radiation, it did not measure the direct solar radiation or solar radiance, and so a more complete ERB measurement package was developed for Nimbus-6 and 7. So with the Nimbus-6 and 7 era, Bill Smith was here, was the principal investigator, I worked with him and we had a number of others, Don Hillary, John Hickey, Bob Maschhoff, Lee Kyle and others who developed an eclectic experiment for both Nimbus-6 and 7, had low resolution fixed radiometers and we had... and this is very significant, medium resolution by axial scanners and what I mean by that, it would scan, we had 4 shortwave channels and 4 infrared channels that would scan to the horizon and then come back, actually move over to try to fill in spaces and then scan back to the nader and then made a 90 degree rotation and then scan... didn't go all the way to the horizon, it was some difficulties there in designing that, but we went almost to the horizon and scanned back and then did another 90 degree, so you could get at all different directions, that was very significant. The other very significant thing was, we had 10 spectral bands measuring the direct solar radiance, including the total solar radiance reaching the earth. Now the Nimbus-6 results were good, yet they revealed some challenging data processing and analysis questions. So this led to the Nimbus-7 ERB science team. I was the team leader and you can see the names here, Garrett Campbell, Lee Kyle, Ken Coulson of UC Davis, Maschhoff, Fred House from Drexal, Larry Stowe and Ingcrsoll of Caltech, Tom Vonder Haar, CSU, Al Arking and Ben Dean were NASA Project Scientists. Now Bill Smith wasn't involved as you heard in pioneering new weather observations for Nimbus, so he could not take a direct part in the team. We would have loved to have had him but he can't be everywhere. Now, our primary results from the Nimbus-6 and 7 ERB were that we produced the first high precision measurements of the direct solar radiance reaching the earth the first and we actually beat out the Solar Max Mission which was designed to be more accurate I mean it was special and I'll show you something about that, but it helped check and improve early climate models that was an important thing. Now here is a picture of solar radiance, the top part is the Nimbus-7 ERB and you could see the solar cycle, sunspot cycle, the solar cycle how it varies and here is the Solar Max Mission. We actually beat them by six months. We know that they are more accurate, and down here is the follow-on to the Nimbus, the Earth Radiation Budget satellite experiment, and so we have a good record of the solar radiance. Now, this diagram shows something different, going away from the solar. This is the measurements of the variations of the outgoing infrared radiation over the globe for this particular one; June, July and August, and the top one is the CCMI... the CCM1 rather, climate model, and the bottom one is the Nimbus-7. And what we are talking about is the Standard Deviation. For those who don't know, it's the... it's a measure of the variation of the radiation, of the outgoing infrared radiation; the higher the Standard Deviation the greater the variation from its Mean. So what you'll notice dramatically, if you compare these numbers, you will see that there are Standard Deviations in many places. On the average it's about twice as much in the models than you see with the measurements from the Earth Radiation Budget. So as a result the models had to be revised considerably and they were greatly improved until they got something in the order of what we actually measure. So that was an important thing. Another thing I want to show, the follow-on to the Nimbus-7 ERB was the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), and this was the ERB's part of that on NOAA-9, and I want to compare the... a four-month average, a particular figure, and I have it circled. It came out with 234.50 W per meter squared for the outgoing and the Nimbus-7 Wide Field-of-View at 234.88, pretty close. Also close on the albedo the percent reflected up from the... of the solar radiation, 29.89 here, 29.88 here. So excellent, and the ERBE was the follow-on which then led to the series; Climate and Earth's Radiation Energy System, I believe. So I have some conclusions. The Nimbus ERB results confirmed and greatly expanded our knowledge of the fundamental earth science parameters. It also provided a baseline for the outgoing... ongoing monitoring of the Earth's climate system from space. It also guided development of global models and international climate experiment such as GWACs, and it led to the highly successful NASA ERBs and SIRIs programs to continue the expansion of knowledge for climate purposes. But one last thing I want to say, I meant to say it before when I was talking about the science theme that we had. And this is a happy reminiscence of that time. We had a number of team members, in every three months we would go to meet at one of their locations, be it Caltech or UC Davis, different places, and you know, after a while you come in the evening, go to dinner, and it's you know... you do not in a friendliest surroundings as you would like. So I discussed this with my wife and she said, "Why don't you have them all over to the house for dinner?" when we were meeting in Maryland. I said, "Great idea," and she prepared a dinner, a buffet dinner that we can take and they can all come and meet. And I remember that, my two daughters were very young at the time and they came down and said goodnight to the team members, you know, I remember this very fondly and she and... we even set up an easel that we... my daughters would use for doing a little painting and we use that and had some discussions, very relaxed, and had dinner in a much better surroundings than we would have today, a more formal setting. So I remember that very well. So that's what I take away from it personally besides the conclusions, the success of the Nimbus-6 and 7 Radiation Budget that provided. Thank you! [Applause]