And this talk and the flowing talk is connected. I will talking about the location, data collecting system of Nimbus-3, 4 and 6 and which were really scientific experiments, they were designed for it, tracking new logical balloons and buoys and so forth, free drifting. But there was a spinner called search and rescue that came out of this and we began to look at it, so my talk will be linked to Tim Sinquefield who is sitting here from NOAA Corp and he will follow-up with what I say on the operational part of search and rescue and how it has evolved and other operating program. So as I said Nimbus-3 and 4 have a system called the IRLS, the system Interrogation Recording and Location and Nimbus-6 has a scientific experiment Paul Julian was the PI and Verner Soumi was a Co-lead on it. I was the Co-lead also, and I will be talking about some of our search and rescue demonstrations here. So here is the IRL System on Nimbus and you have to remember this was way before GPS, you have [inaudible] it's more complicated and sophisticated than what we have here, but this was very early on and as you can see we had surface platforms around the IRL. The satellite was programmed, each IRL with commands for each of these platforms and the satellite would send the command and the system will respond and we will give it a range, distance and we will send a frame of data with sensor data or as I will talk later about some search and rescue messages. So this was the IRL System I had worked, again, you have to remember that this was not in real-time, this was some sequence orbits where every 12 hours or so we could give a pass-over to some of these things, but it did serve to demonstrate the concept. Here is some of the early drifting buoy data that we always thought was interesting, In the Arctic we did two buoys were deployed here and they meandered all over the place and they all ended up right in that little field we were very intrigued when that happened, it must have been a down downwelling or something, that drove in there. Here is one of our first rescues you might say, there was a buoy deployed off Puerto Rico it was operated by the National Oceanographic office. It was a very sophisticated large buoy system, I don't know what it was worth, but it was considered very important for their work and it broke its mooring and here we and of course Nimbus was now tracking it and with this last location here we were able to steer a ship to it and they were totally elated with this. It was the first time we rescued something, we had drifting buoy, but it saved them a ton of money. I don't remember what the impact would have been otherwise, but it would have been tremendous to recover that thing, they would have been searching all over the ocean for it. We did a balloon experiment on Nimbus-3 and this was - believe it or not that's the gondola that flew on a balloon that little thing there is our antenna and our boxes inside here, we are not that's not our thing, and this was under the control of NCAR and it was just to show that we could - we could track a balloon because actually that's what we are setting out to do eventually. And here is the balloon package that we developed for Nimbus-4, this box is about 12 inches x 6 inches and they flew quite high over solar panel, and we actually launched from Ascension Island; 30 of these went into the tropics and were tracked, and here we actually copy pictorially launched itself, you see the balloon and that package underneath, and this current would travel along the runway at Ascension Island at the same velocity as the wind and when they may then you can let the balloon raise up vertically and it was actually another pilot baloon here, let me - it's hard see that here was the indication that we are at the right velocity and here is some examples, balloons went to [inaudible] and here are some cracking data from one of those balloons and you can see that they really traveled around the equator and they never came to leave, however we did have a cut down mechanism on the balloon occasionally drifting over into China or some other country. We actually had to cut down that, someone left that little path there. And eventually we got to the animals, that's a 25 pound package and learn... to stable the art and we actually named that Ilk Mo for [inaudible] And here is Sheila Scott, Sheila is a British Pilot, she was a Dame, I think that's equivalent to a Knight in Britain and when her organization approached us it was as if the British Government was asking us so naturally we agreed to track her and her - she had a little Piper Aztec. Her goal was to fly solo around the world and she was not the first to try that, but I've heard her flight was a flight over the North Pole. So she was the first female solo pilot over the pole in a little plane. So here is the plane, that's our intent, it had to be certified by the FAA and here is Sheila's flight over the pole. At this point I want to mention that this is just a part of her around the world trip. She went to countries all over the world and every time she landed there seem to be a crisis. Her battery was bad, or the plane was... the engine was overheating, it was only the crisis, and actually you know, the reporters were there and she was in the newspapers and so forth. And we started to worry about this leg of the mission, because this was going to be kind of hazardous flying from here all over there with no nothing in here, and by the time we got to I think that's Norway... by the time we got there, we didn't have much choice. We had an astronaut, were those giving her instructions by the way and then she took-off and my gosh, she went right over that pole, fastest as clear we could see it was right over the top of - then flew over to Alaska to Barter Island and the radar picked her up and then she continued on. And when she finally landed, somebody told me they heard a sigh of relief from NASA Headquarters up in Greenbelt. And she wrote a book. It was an interesting book she published with her whole story of this. So Sheila didn't need to be rescued but she did have a code that she would have sent, that told us that she needed help. Moving on to Nimbus-6, now this is the TWERLE experiment, I mentioned Paul Julian and Verner Soumi were the Co-leads earlier principals on here. In this... I keep hitting that down button. This didn't have the command linked down that I showed talking about on the IRLS. These platforms balloons and buoys had timers that transmitted 1 pulse per second, one second per 60 seconds rather, and they were random, totally random incoherent and that time shift and the Doppler shift combined would enable us to have as many as 200 in-field view and the mutual interference even though they were transmitting randomly, were so, so low that it was that negligible. And so the equipment that was on the platforms was obviously smaller and lighter and lower in power and Doppler was used here. And again, main purpose of this was the balloon and the buoys. Here is an example, here is a picture of our balloon package that we developed for that system, that antenna is a piece of nylon that's about 2-feet tall and this balloon had we designed so it was non-hazardous to an aircraft, an airliner, a passenger airliner and we actually did extensive testing of this to make sure that if an airline hit this anywhere along that path, the string, it wouldn't just the package that we lined up there would be no problem. Fortunately, we never heard of any attempt to do that and I am glad it wasn't the airplane that tried it but here is some balloon data from that experiment. Again, this was Paul Julian and Verner Soumi had this experiment done here in the bottom and Paul was interested in this tracking data and my role was to deliver the spacecraft processor. I wanted to give some credit to Morg Friedman here who gave us the idea for the processor we used to process that data. So here is a buoy, electronic view, and that's about 12-14 inches and here is an example of a free-drifting buoy we had - I don't remember how many we had, but there are a lot of them and you can see the droves would be dropped down and that would capture the sub-surface current and that's helped the buoy would be propelled and we will track with free drifting buoy. And here is an example what the buoy look like. Ron Ronning mentioned the double Eagle in his talk. This is a... this was our real rescue; this is our first real rescue. Three fellows were going to attempt to cross the Atlantic in a balloon, a hired balloon from here Cape Cod, all the way over to Paris. They should have... the flight should have taken like that. And they got caught in this circulation here and they had to be rescued. They sent the code, we have a code in the package and they sent it and we detected it and that's the coast guard wrestle and you see a little black circle shows our antenna, that little gondola, that's the gondola suspended below the balloon and it floated fortunately. So there were three men in there that were rescued because of that date So that was kind of setting the stage for the technology that was involving there. This was the same experiment I talked about, in fact, we had to rescue them there, but they didn't give up. They came back and they tried it again and here they finally got correctly landed in Paris. And in the back there is a poster where there are pictures in it. We had a press conference after we came - they came back off the Goddard. Here is another interesting experiment we did or headed towards search and rescue. His real name was Naomi Uemura, a Japanese explorer, and he was going to... what he did, he took a dogsled and keep moving. He took a dogsled over Greenland, all the way across from North to South, as a solo. And he was collecting scientific data along the way and there is our antenna and it was... I don't know the exact duration but he had to be regularly supplied with food and other things. And the way that worked is, he had a pilot, a Canadian pilot would take our position we had and start flying towards that position, and eventually he'd be coming - he'd come in the radio contact with Naomi, and what would happen is, Naomi would watch the dogs. The dogs would hear the aircraft before he did. So he would tell the pilot where the dogs were looking and then the pilot would use that heading and our location to zoom in on and they came right in. So he had the satellite and the human and the dogs, all working together. And it worked very well. Well, he didn't have to be rescued. He never uses the code. This is the list of experiments we had on that -- there were 49 of them. These were some prominent scientists in here and at the end of the Nimbus 7 TWERLE experiment this list was send over to Noah. Noah was getting ready to launch the Argos System which is an operational version of what we just talked about. And that led them into the operational field, so most of those users that we indoctrinated showed how to repeat the data, joined Argos, and that of course is still running today as far as I know. And in 04 when I last filled this data they had 400 programs and a lot of platforms on the earth, they were charging for that operation, what was... it was nonprofit. It wasn't profitable. And eventually they began experiment with use of GPS when they finally came along. So it was a very successful program and it laid exactly the basis for the TWERLE. So here is the evolution of some of that technology, you know that 25 pound package, well, now they got smaller. And here is a polar bear there, these are from Argos, and they even got the birds and they still do bird. Here is the evolution; here is a concept of SARSAT. I have to give Bill Radish some credit here for this, because this, this was not an easy program to sell. You might think certain rescue; it's so noble and so beneficial that you could easily sell. But we had a heck of time. You wouldn't even believe the things we were told and I will mention it later. This is the COSPAS-SARSAT. COSPAS is a Russian and this program eventually had the US, France, Canada and Russia, four countries. And Bill gets credit for working that whole community, including NASA Headquarters by the way, and I want to pull this together. It was not easy to sell as I mentioned, Bill and Bernie Trudel and myself, Bernie and I worked for Bill at that time. And we went to Headquarters after a year or so developing this plan and we presented it, and we were told to go home. But NASA was not going to be buying a system to save people that can afford to buy their own airplane. That's what we were told. Now we were devastated. We were - ah! And then all of a sudden Senator Hale Boggs from Mississippi, a real close powerful guy was lost in Alaska, he didn't have any transmitter, and all of a sudden we got call back from the Headquarters, and from that on we had a program. In 1985, and again I mentioned these countries. Today, well, when I showed this chart 10 years ago at the foyer we had... there were 38 countries in the program, probably more than now. This is the number they gave me at that time. And I think what's happening now is you heard from Tim that GPS, Geostationary Satellites are now taken over. We have the polar robot with the time delay in-between the passes, 12 hours. And this of course, gives you real-time. So in order to help promote that system we made these bumper stickers, and encourage people to help for our program.