1 00:00:00,020 --> 00:00:01,190 2 00:00:01,210 --> 00:00:07,170 My name's Robert Kennedy. I'm an Assistant Professor in the Department of Earth and Environment at Boston University. 3 00:00:07,190 --> 00:00:12,660 All of these images are numbers. 4 00:00:12,680 --> 00:00:16,740 Now we can display them on a monitor as different colors. 5 00:00:16,760 --> 00:00:20,920 but what we work with, analytically, are the numbers themselves. 6 00:00:20,940 --> 00:00:25,100 When we're looking at how processes affect landscapes 7 00:00:25,120 --> 00:00:31,450 you need to understand how the processes unfold over time. 8 00:00:31,470 --> 00:00:35,590 Hindsight's 20/20. Landsat gives you that hindsight. 9 00:00:35,610 --> 00:00:40,620 In the Pacfic Northwest, known for its timber, right for producing lumber. 10 00:00:40,640 --> 00:00:45,140 So you've got a stable forest and it looks kind of the same to the satellite over time 11 00:00:45,160 --> 00:00:49,860 and then you come along and cut down all the trees – boom, it's a lot brighter. 12 00:00:49,880 --> 00:00:53,900 So you can think of sutracting one part of the information. 13 00:00:53,920 --> 00:00:58,930 And the other thing is that you've revealed something new which is the soil, the rocks. 14 00:00:58,950 --> 00:01:01,990 So you've added this soil in there, this signal that 15 00:01:02,010 --> 00:01:05,370 sort of bursts out at you like a flag. 16 00:01:05,390 --> 00:01:08,450 That soil signal that was there, that you saw right after the clear cut, 17 00:01:08,470 --> 00:01:13,530 immediately starts getting obscured - grass will come in, shrubs will come in.... 18 00:01:13,550 --> 00:01:18,700 So as that happens the soil gets covered up. So you can actually watch that whole process happen, 19 00:01:18,720 --> 00:01:24,880 from an older forest to this bright soil to recovering vegetation 20 00:01:24,900 --> 00:01:26,060 21 00:01:26,080 --> 00:01:31,240 So the progression in the bark beetle case, we have a fairly stable lodgepole forest. 22 00:01:31,260 --> 00:01:34,430 There'll be sort of an explosion, and epidemic of these beetles. 23 00:01:34,450 --> 00:01:38,600 Our color scheme goes from stable forest which is in tones of blue 24 00:01:38,620 --> 00:01:43,770 to this bright red coming from the soil and from branches and things 25 00:01:43,790 --> 00:01:47,890 that are revealed when the trees lose their needles and when the needles change color. 26 00:01:47,910 --> 00:01:52,020 One of the insects thats increasingly important is 27 00:01:52,040 --> 00:01:55,150 Western Spruce Budworm. They don't go in and kill the tree outright, 28 00:01:55,170 --> 00:01:59,270 but come in and eat the buds or the young needles off a tree. 29 00:01:59,290 --> 00:02:03,050 So the satellite sees that as a bit of a darkening of the picture over time. 30 00:02:03,070 --> 00:02:07,550 By the end of the time period, we see pure yellow and that's associated with broadleaf shrubs, 31 00:02:07,570 --> 00:02:10,450 it could even be a shrub field, just dense. 32 00:02:10,470 --> 00:02:15,130 Those bugs have changed the environment for everything else there, 33 00:02:15,150 --> 00:02:20,800 and the Everything Else there in this part of the world are shrubs: rhododendrons, other shrubs 34 00:02:20,820 --> 00:02:24,980 that are usually hanging out underneath the trees 35 00:02:25,000 --> 00:02:30,980 where its kind of dark and shady. Boom, they get all this light, they love it, they grow like gangbusters. 36 00:02:31,000 --> 00:02:32,040 37 00:02:32,060 --> 00:02:36,220 One of the interesting things about managing forests in the Pacific northwest, 38 00:02:36,240 --> 00:02:41,700 you can see a very strict delineation on your landscape 39 00:02:41,720 --> 00:02:45,890 from the satellite's perspective, and that's just 40 00:02:45,910 --> 00:02:50,060 a manifestation of the policy differences, of the ownership differences. 41 00:02:50,080 --> 00:02:54,220 The idea behind science is to develop understanding, 42 00:02:54,240 --> 00:02:58,360 ultimately to be able to predict and understand processes. 43 00:02:58,380 --> 00:03:02,480 When we look at a change, when we look at those graphs of life histories 44 00:03:02,500 --> 00:03:07,180 of individual pixels, it's that the numbers that drive everything. 45 00:03:07,200 --> 00:03:12,370 It's the numbers that we use to look at how severe things are, it's the numbers that we to quantify how long did it take 46 00:03:12,390 --> 00:03:14,710 or when did that start or how big was that clear cut. 47 00:03:14,730 --> 00:03:18,770 The Landsat perspective is really the only tool that lets you look at what's going on 48 00:03:18,790 --> 00:03:22,940 at the scale that you're interested in where you can see individual events and 49 00:03:22,960 --> 00:03:29,000 harvests and roads and houses – and at the same time look at the whole landscape. 50 00:03:29,020 --> 00:03:32,000 51 00:03:32,020 --> 00:03:44,805 [beep]