Universe  ID: 13326

Black Hole Accretion Disk Visualization

This new visualization of a black hole illustrates how its gravity distorts our view, warping its surroundings as if seen in a carnival mirror. The visualization simulates the appearance of a black hole where infalling matter has collected into a thin, hot structure called an accretion disk. The black hole’s extreme gravity skews light emitted by different regions of the disk, producing the misshapen appearance.

Bright knots constantly form and dissipate in the disk as magnetic fields wind and twist through the churning gas. Nearest the black hole, the gas orbits at close to the speed of light, while the outer portions spin a bit more slowly. This difference stretches and shears the bright knots, producing light and dark lanes in the disk.

Viewed from the side, the disk looks brighter on the left than it does on the right. Glowing gas on the left side of the disk moves toward us so fast that the effects of Einstein’s relativity give it a boost in brightness; the opposite happens on the right side, where gas moving away us becomes slightly dimmer. This asymmetry disappears when we see the disk exactly face on because, from that perspective, none of the material is moving along our line of sight.

Closest to the black hole, the gravitational light-bending becomes so excessive that we can see the underside of the disk as a bright ring of light seemingly outlining the black hole. This so-called “photon ring” is composed of multiple rings, which grow progressively fainter and thinner, from light that has circled the black hole two, three, or even more times before escaping to reach our eyes. Because the black hole modeled in this visualization is spherical and non-rotating, the photon ring looks nearly circular and identical from any viewing angle. Inside the photon ring is the black hole’s shadow, an area roughly twice the size of the event horizon — its point of no return.

This visualization is “mass invariant,” which means it can represent a black hole of any mass. The size of the black hole's shadow is proportional to its mass, but so is the size of the accreetion disk, so its properties scale accordingly.

Simulations and movies like these really help us visualize what Einstein meant when he said that gravity warps the fabric of space and time.
 

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For More Information

https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2019/nasa-visualization-shows-a-black-hole-s-warped-world


Credits

Jeremy Schnittman (NASA/GSFC): Lead Visualizer
Scott Wiessinger (USRA): Lead Producer
Francis Reddy (University of Maryland College Park): Lead Science Writer
Please give credit for this item to:
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. However, indivdidual items should be credited as indicated above.

Short URL to share this page:
http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/13326

This item is part of these series:
Astrophysics Visualizations
Astrophysics Simulations

Keywords:
SVS >> Galaxy
SVS >> Neutron Star
SVS >> X-ray
SVS >> Black Hole
SVS >> Gamma Ray Burst
SVS >> Astrophysics
SVS >> Universe
SVS >> Pulsar
SVS >> Space
SVS >> Blazar
SVS >> Supernova
SVS >> Star
NASA Science >> Universe