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NASA Goddard Shorts HD


These HD videos share the work of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Goddard is home to the Nation's largest organization of combined scientists and engineers dedicated to learning and sharing their knowledge of the Earth, solar system, and Universe.

Episodes:

      NASA | September 10, 2014 X1.6 flare
      The sun emitted a significant solar flare, peaking at 1:48 p.m. EDT on Sept. 10, 2014. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory captured images of the event. Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation. Harmful radiation from a flare cannot pass through Earth's atmosphere to physically affect humans on the ground. However -- when intense enough -- they can disturb the atmosphere in the layer where GPS and communications signals travel. This flare is classified as an X1.6 class flare. "X-class" denotes the most intense flares, while the number provides more information about its strength. An X2 is twice as intense as an X1, an X3 is three times as intense, etc.
      Duration: 00:00:36
      2014-09-11

      NASA | The Mysterious Holes in the Atmosphere on Venus
      The European Space Agency's Venus Express mission saw something it could not explain. It appeared that there were holes on the nightside of Venus' ionosphere. Researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center investigated these mysterious holes, and found evidence that the sun's magnetic field lines may be penetrating through the planet.
      Duration: 00:03:03
      2014-09-11

      NASA | 15-year Satellite Record Shows Decline in Northern Hemisphere Phytoplankton Populations
      This video illustrates the 15-year decline shown by satellite record of phytoplankton in the Northern Hemisphere.
      Duration: 00:01:02
      2014-09-11

      NASA | Mapping Alaska's Forests
      NASA and the U.S. Forest Service are surveying the forests of Interior Alaska. The airborne study using an advanced instrument will create a 3D map of the forest composition. This will enable scientists to see patterns of fire recovery and provide a benchmark for assessing future changes to the region.
      Duration: 00:00:53
      2014-09-11

      NASA | Targeting Mars
      NASA's MAVEN spacecraft is quickly approaching Mars on a mission to study its upper atmosphere. When it arrives on September 21, 2014, MAVEN's winding journey from Earth will culminate with a dramatic engine burn, pulling the spacecraft into an elliptical orbit.
      Duration: 00:02:03
      2014-09-11

      NASA | A Selective History of Arctic Sea Ice Observations, Part 2
      Arctic sea ice has been been the last frontier of the North for thousands of years, turning back seafarers, testing the mettle of explorers, and providing a way of life for people circling the top of the world. This animated timeline provides a quick (and highly selective) ride from the days of early Greek exploration to the dawn of the Space Age to the advanced capabilities we have today.
      Duration: 00:03:05
      2014-09-11

      NASA | Scanning a Snow Storm
      On March 17, 2014 the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core Observatory flew over the East coast's last snow storm of the 2013-2014 winter season. This was also one of the first major snow storms observed by GPM shortly after it was launched on February 27, 2014. The GPM Core Observatory carries two instruments that show the location and intensity of rain and snow, which defines a crucial part of the storm structure - and how it will behave. The GPM Microwave Imager sees through the tops of clouds to observe how much and where precipitation occurs, and the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar observes precise details of precipitation in 3-dimensions. For forecasters, GPM's microwave and radar data are part of the toolbox of satellite data, including other low Earth orbit and geostationary satellites, that they use to monitor tropical cyclones and hurricanes.
      Duration: 00:01:08
      2014-09-05

      NASA | The Data Downpour
      A video describing how the GPM constellation turns observed radiances and reflectivities of global precipitation into data products.
      Duration: 00:04:03
      2014-09-05

      NASA | A Selective History of Sea Ice Observations, Part 1
      Arctic sea ice has been been the last frontier of the North for thousands of years, turning back seafarers, testing the mettle of explorers, and providing a way of life for people circling the top of the world. This animated timeline provides a quick (and highly selective) ride from the days of early Greek exploration to the dawn of the Space Age.
      Duration: 00:03:05
      2014-09-05

      NASA | Late Summer M5 Solar Flare
      On Aug. 24, 2014, the sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 8:16 a.m. EDT. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory captured images of the flare, which erupted on the left side of the sun. Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation. Harmful radiation from a flare cannot pass through Earth's atmosphere to physically affect humans on the ground, however -- when intense enough -- they can disturb the atmosphere in the layer where GPS and communications signals travel. To see how this event may affect Earth, please visit NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center at http://spaceweather.gov, the U.S. government's official source for space weather forecasts, alerts, watches and warnings. This flare is classified as an M5 flare. M-class flares are ten times less powerful than the most intense flares, called X-class flares.
      Duration: 00:01:05
      2014-09-05

      NASA | Ozone-Depleting Compound Persists
      Earth's atmosphere contains an unexpectedly large amount of an ozone-depleting compound from an unknown source decades after the compound was banned worldwide. The compound, carbon tetrachloride, was used in applications such as dry cleaning and as a fire-extinguishing agent, until its regulation in 1987 under the Montreal Protocol along with other chlorofluorocarbons that destroy ozone and contribute to the ozone hole over Antarctica. Parties to the Montreal Protocol reported zero new emissions between 2007-2012. However, new research led by Qing Liang at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, shows that worldwide emissions of carbon tetrachloride average 39 kilotons per year - approximately 30 percent of peak emissions prior to the international treaty going into effect. Now that scientists have quantified the emissions they can begin investigating where they are coming from. Are there industrial leakages, large emissions from contaminated sites, or some other unknown source?
      Duration: 00:02:00
      2014-08-20

      NASA | RXTE Satellite Catches the Beat of a Midsize Black Hole
     
      Duration: 00:02:03
      2014-08-20

      NASA | Show Me the Water
      A short video explaining the breakdown of freshwater in relative percentages by location and usage. This is a spinoff video for the Science on a Sphere film "Water Falls."
      Duration: 00:02:08
      2014-08-20

      NASA | ARISE Arctic Mission Takes Shape
      Crews at NASA Goddard's Wallops Flight Facility are hard at work integrating a suite of instruments into a C-130 aircraft in preparation for the start of the ARISE campaign later this month. ARISE, which stands for Arctic Radiation IceBridge Sea and Ice Experiment, will make simultaneous measurements of ice, clouds and levels of incoming and outgoing radiation, the balance of which determines the degree of climate warming.
      Duration: 00:02:01
      2014-08-14

      NASA | Intern Profile - Dhanesh "DK" Krishnarao
      Intern Dhanesh "DK" Krishnarao works in Code 674 on space weather forecasting under mentor Dr. Yihua Zheng.
      Duration: 00:01:08
      2014-08-12

      NASA | EUNIS Sees Evidence for Nanoflare Coronal Heating
      Scientists have recently gathered some of the strongest evidence to date to explain what makes the sun's outer atmosphere so much hotter than its surface. The new observations show temperatures in the atmosphere so hot that only one current theory explains them: something called nanoflares - a constant peppering of impulsive bursts of heating, none of which can be individually detected -- provide the mysterious extra heat. These new observations come from just six minutes worth of data from one of NASA's least expensive type of missions, a sounding rocket. The EUNIS mission, short for Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph, launched on April 23, 2013, gathering a new snapshot of data every 1.3 seconds to track the properties of material over a wide range of temperatures in the complex solar atmosphere. The unique capabilities of EUNIS enabled researchers to obtain these results. The spectrograph was able to clearly and unambiguously distinguish the observations representing the extremely hot material - emission lines showing light with a wavelength of 592.6 Angstrom, where an Angstrom is the size of an atom -- from a very nearby light wavelength of 592.2 Angstroms.
      Duration: 00:02:06
      2014-08-12

      NASA | OIB: Across the Ross
      As summer temperatures heat up in the Northern Hemisphere, we look back at Operation IceBridge's most recent Antarctic campaign. In November of last year, IceBridge researchers completed the first-ever basin-wide airborne survey of ice in the Ross Sea. This survey, known as the Ross Sea Fluxgate mission, aimed to help researchers track the movement of sea ice in the Ross Sea. After an early morning weather briefing and takeoff from the sea ice runway at the National Science Foundation's McMurdo Station in Antarctica, the NASA P-3 flew a survey that took researchers across the Ross Sea basin and back. The purpose of this mission was to set up a pair of parallel lines known as a flux gate that scientists can use to study how ice moves out through the Ross Sea. In addition, IceBridge's instruments collected data on sea ice freeboard - the height of ice above the ocean surface - which can be used to calculate sea ice thickness and volume.
      Duration: 00:02:01
      2014-08-12

      NASA | Fermi Catches a 'Transformer' Pulsar
      Zoom into an artist's rendering of AY Sextantis, a binary star system whose pulsar switched from radio emissions to high-energy gamma rays in 2013. This transition likely means the pulsar's spin-up process is nearing its end.
      Duration: 00:02:09
      2014-08-12

      NASA | Landsat's Global Perspective
      Celebrating the 40th anniversary of the 1972 launch of the Landsat 1 spacecraft, this is a "greatest hits" montage of Landsat data. Throughout the decades, the Landsat satellites have given us a detailed view of the changes to Earth's land surface. By collecting data in multiple wavelength regions, including thermal infrared wavelengths, the Landsat fleet has allowed us to study natural disasters, urban change, water quality and water usage, agriculture development, glaciers and ice sheets, and forest health.
      Duration: 00:07:06
      2014-08-12

      NASA | A New Look at the Apollo 11 Landing Site
      The Apollo 11 landing site visualized in three dimensions using photography and a stereo digital elevation model from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera.
      Duration: 00:01:13
      2014-08-12

      NASA | Peeking Into Lunar Pits
      NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) has photographed hundreds of holes on the Moon's surface, which may lead to environments sheltered from radiation, meteorite impacts, and extreme temperatures.
      Duration: 00:01:03
      2014-08-12

      NASA | 10 Years of Aura Legacy
      The Aura atmospheric chemistry satellite celebrates its 10th anniversary in July, 2014. Since its launch in 2004, Aura has monitored the Earth's atmosphere and provided data on the ozone layer, air quality, and greenhouse gases associated with climate change.
      Duration: 00:05:00
      2014-07-15

      NASA | Landsat Looks to the Moon
      Landsat 8 uses the full moon every month to check that the sensors on the Operational Land Imager are detecting light consistently.
      Duration: 00:01:09
      2014-07-15

      NASA | Scientists Create First Full 3D Model of Eta Carinae Nebula
      NASA Goddard astrophysicists Ted Gull and Tom Madura discuss Eta Carinae and their new model of the Homunculus Nebula, a shell of gas and dust ejected during the star's mid-19th century eruption.
      Duration: 00:04:01
      2014-07-15

      NASA | STEREO Solar Conjunction
      Since February 2011, the two spacecraft of NASA's STEREO mission have been providing scientists with unprecedented views of the far side of the sun. Placed in an orbit that allows their perspective to changed over the eight years since their launch in 2008 (ck), the satellites are about to enter a new phase of their journey: a time when the bright light and heat of the sun will stand in the way of sending data back to Earth. This phase is a direct result of the orbits for STEREO, which is short for the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory. The spacecraft travel at different speeds. This means that over time, the satellites become increasingly out of sync, appearing from Earth's perspective to drift farther apart, able to observe first the sides and eventually the far side of the sun. For the first time ever, thanks to STEREO and near-Earth solar telescopes such as NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory the human race has had its first 360-degree view of the sun. The orbits have continued to cause the STEREO spacecraft's position to change, however, and now they are nearing each other once again, this time on the other side of the sun. During this period when the sun blocks Earth's view -- a geometrical position known in astronomy as a superior conjunction -- radio receivers on Earth will not be able to distinguish STEREO's signal from the sun's radiation. Communication with the spacecraft will cease and the satellites will both go into safe mode without collecting data for a time. This will happen for STEREO-Ahead from March 24 to July 7, 2015. STEREO-Behind will be in superior conjunction from Jan. 22 to March 23, 2015. At least one spacecraft, therefore, will always be collecting data. Before this occurs, the heating from the sun will also begin to affect - though not shut down -- data collection. From wherever they are in space, the STEREO spacecraft aim their antenna toward Earth to send down data. This position puts the antenna fairly close to pointing at the sun, exposing the instruments to more heat than it can safely bear. The antenna can be adjusted to point in different directions, but the signal coming to Earth will be much fainter and won't allow for as much data to be downloaded. This antenna adjustment will begin on Aug. 20, 2014, for the STEREO-Ahead spacecraft and on Dec. 1, 2014, for STEREO-Behind. During this phase, STEREO instruments will continue to run 24 hours a day, but they will gather lower-resolution data than usual. Some of this data will be downloaded whenever STEREO can link up with an Earth receiver. The rest of the data will be stored on board to be downloaded when the spacecraft reach a more auspicious geometrical position in early 2016. To test for this off-pointing from the sun, STEREO-Ahead will undergo tests and not be collecting data from July 6-12, 2014. The same tests will be performed on STEREO-Behind from Sept. 29 - Oct. 6, 2014. Throughout this entire phase until 2016, at least one STEREO spacecraft will be capturing data at any one time, so scientists will have an uninterrupted record of events on the sun to coordinate with the observations of solar telescopes on the Earth side. Real time monitoring of the sun, its flares and coronal mass ejections - information used by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to help forecast space weather -- will also continue via a fleet of NASA spacecraft closer to Earth. Mission scientist Joe Gurman gives an overview of solar conjunction and what lies ahead for the STEREO spacecraft.
      Duration: 00:02:09
      2014-07-07

      NASA | Aquarius Returns Global Maps of Soil Moisture
      NASA's Aquarius instrument has released its first released worldwide maps of soil moisture. Soil moisture, the water contained within soil particles, is an important player in Earth's water cycle. This animated version of Aquarius' measurements reveals a dynamic pattern of worldwide shifts between dry and moist soils.
      Duration: 00:01:05
      2014-07-07

      NASA | Goddard Goes to Mars
      The Martian climate remains one of the solar system's biggest mysteries: although cold and dry today, myriad surface features on Mars carved by flowing water attest to a much warmer, wetter past. What caused this dramatic transition? Scientists think that climate change on Mars may be due to solar wind erosion of the early atmosphere, and NASA's MAVEN mission will test this hypothesis. Project Manager David F. Mitchell discusses MAVEN and the Goddard Space Flight Center's role in sending it to the Red Planet.
      Duration: 00:02:05
      2014-06-25

      NASA | JWST Microshutters Snapshot
      A new Microshutter Array for the Webb Telescope's Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) is packed and transported by hand one building away at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to undergo thermal cycling testing and checkouts at it operational temperature of 35 kelvin or -397 Fahrenheit.
      Duration: 00:01:09
      2014-06-25

      NASA | The Moon As Art Contest
      To celebrate its 5th Anniversary, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission decided to hold a contest to pick a cover image for "The Moon As Art" collection. This collection features a variety of beautiful visuals that were created using data gathered by LRO over the first 4.5 years of operations. 5 images were selected by the LRO team to put up for a public vote. Did your favorite image win? Watch this video to find out!
      Duration: 00:02:01
      2014-06-19

      NASA | Webb's Fully Integrated Heart Lowered
      Engineers move the heart of the Webb Telescope holding all four science instruments out of the clean room at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and into the huge Space Environment Simulator for several months of testing at temperatures reaching 20 Kelvin or -425 Fahrenheit.
      Duration: 00:02:00
      2014-06-19

      NASA | Laser Mapping The Earth
      NASA's Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor, known as "LVIS," is a scanning laser altimeter instrument that is flown on aircraft. Now mounted on the high-altitude, long duration Global Hawk drone, LVIS can help scientists better map the Earth. The data that LVIS provides, combined with high-resolution still images, can be used to create interactive 3-D maps.
      Duration: 00:03:00
      2014-06-09

      NASA | Summer 2014 Interns' First Day
      Katrina Jackson and Angel Mills get to know the incoming Goddard interns as they check in for their first day of the 2014 summer internship season.
      Duration: 00:02:08
      2014-06-04

      NASA | MMS Mission Trailer
      In March 2015, NASA will launch four identical spacecraft to study how magnetic fields around Earth connect and disconnect, explosively releasing energy - a process known as magnetic reconnection. The Magnetospheric Multiscale, or MMS, mission will provide the first three-dimensional views of this fundamental process that can accelerate particles to nearly the speed of light. MMS uses Earth's protective magnetic space environment, the magnetosphere, as a natural laboratory to directly measure reconnection. Reconnection is a common processes in our universe; occurring in space near Earth, in the atmosphere of the sun and other stars, in the vicinity of black holes and neutron stars, and at virtually any boundary between space plasmas, including the boundary between our solar system's heliosphere and interstellar space.
      Duration: 00:00:48
      2014-06-02

      NASA | The MMS Mission's Unique Orbit
      Scientist John Dorelli explains the MMS mission's orbit and why the four spacecraft fly in a tetrahedron formation. On its journey, MMS will observe a little-understood, but universal phenomenon called magnetic reconnection, responsible for dramatic re-shaping of the magnetic environment near Earth, often sending intense amounts of energy and fast-moving particles off in a new direction. Not only is this a fundamental physical process that occurs throughout the universe, it is also one of the drivers of space weather events at Earth. To truly understanding the process, requires four identical spacecraft to track how such reconnection events move across and through any given space in 3D.
      Duration: 00:01:09
      2014-06-02

      NASA | GOES-R: Living with Space Weather
      In addition to monitoring weather on Earth, the GOES-R satellites will monitor weather in space caused by electromagnetic radiation and charged particles released from solar storms on the Sun. Many people rely on space weather data, including pilots, farmers, satellite operators, electric power workers, and astronauts.
      Duration: 00:03:01
      2014-06-02

      NASA | Global Hawks Soar into Storms
      During this year's Atlantic hurricane season, NASA is redoubling its efforts to probe the inner workings of hurricanes and tropical storms with two unmanned Global Hawk aircraft flying over storms and two new space-based missions. NASA's airborne Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel or HS3 mission will revisit the Atlantic Ocean for the third year in a row. HS3 is a collaborative effort that brings together several NASA centers with federal and university partners to investigate the processes that underlie hurricane formation and intensity change in the Atlantic Ocean basin. The flights from Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia take place between Aug. 26 and Sept. 29 during the peak of the Atlantic hurricane season which runs from June 1 to Nov. 30.
      Duration: 00:02:05
      2014-06-02

      NASA | Heliophysics Work-Study Students
      The Heliophysics Work-Study and Academic Year Internship Program provides STEM opportunities for traditionally underrepresented groups, and compares the effectiveness of Don Bosco Cristo Rey High School's work-study program and Eleanor Roosevelt High School's STEM Academic Year Research Experience Program. Students Min Kang and Christian Dansby and mentor Dr. Georgia DeNolfo discuss the benefits they gain from this program.
      Duration: 00:02:08
      2014-06-02

      NASA | A First for IRIS: Observing a Gigantic Solar Eruption
      A coronal mass ejection burst off the side of the sun on May 9, 2014. The giant sheet of solar material erupting was the first CME seen by NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, or IRIS. The field of view seen here is about five Earth's wide and about seven and a half Earth's tall.
      Duration: 00:00:42
      2014-06-02

      NASA | Neutron Stars Rip Each Other Apart to Form Black Hole
      This supercomputer simulation shows one of the most violent events in the universe: a pair of neutron stars colliding, merging and forming a black hole. A neutron star is the compressed core left behind when a star born with between eight and 30 times the sun's mass explodes as a supernova. Neutron stars pack about 1.5 times the mass of the sun -- equivalent to about half a million Earths -- into a ball just 12 miles (20 km) across. As the simulation begins, we view an unequally matched pair of neutron stars weighing 1.4 and 1.7 solar masses. They are separated by only about 11 miles, slightly less distance than their own diameters. Redder colors show regions of progressively lower density. As the stars spiral toward each other, intense tides begin to deform them, possibly cracking their crusts. Neutron stars possess incredible density, but their surfaces are comparatively thin, with densities about a million times greater than gold. Their interiors crush matter to a much greater degree densities rise by 100 million times in their centers. To begin to imagine such mind-boggling densities, consider that a cubic centimeter of neutron star matter outweighs Mount Everest. By 7 milliseconds, tidal forces overwhelm and shatter the lesser star. Its superdense contents erupt into the system and curl a spiral arm of incredibly hot material. At 13 milliseconds, the more massive star has accumulated too much mass to support it against gravity and collapses, and a new black hole is born. The black hole's event horizon -- its point of no return -- is shown by the gray sphere. While most of the matter from both neutron stars will fall into the black hole, some of the less dense, faster moving matter manages to orbit around it, quickly forming a large and rapidly rotating torus. This torus extends for about 124 miles (200 km) and contains the equivalent of 1/5th the mass of our sun. The entire simulation covers only 20 milliseconds. Scientists think neutron star mergers like this produce short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Short GRBs last less than two seconds yet unleash as much energy as all the stars in our galaxy produce over one year. The rapidly fading afterglow of these explosions presents a challenge to astronomers. A key element in understanding GRBs is getting instruments on large ground-based telescopes to capture afterglows as soon as possible after the burst. The rapid notification and accurate positions provided by NASA's Swift mission creates a vibrant synergy with ground-based observatories that has led to dramatically improved understanding of GRBs, especially for short bursts.
      Duration: 00:02:01
      2014-06-02

      NASA | WFIRST: Uncovering the Mysteries of the Universe
      The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) is an upcoming space telescope designed to perform wide-field imaging and spectroscopy of the infrared sky. One of WFIRST's objectives will be looking for clues about dark energy--the mysterious force that is accelerating the expansion of the universe. Another objective of the mission will be finding and studying exoplanets.
      Duration: 00:01:04
      2014-06-02

      NASA | The Best Observed X-class Flare
      On March 29, 2014 the sun released an X-class flare. It was observed by NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, or IRIS; NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO; NASA's Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, or RHESSI; the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's Hinode; and the National Solar Observatory's Dunn Solar Telescope located at Sacramento Peak in New Mexico.

To have a record of such an intense flare from so many observatories is unprecedented. Such research can help scientists better understand what catalyst sets off these large explosions on the sun. Perhaps we may even some day be able to predict their onset and forewarn of the radio blackouts solar flares can cause near Earth - blackouts that can interfere with airplane, ship and military communications.
      Duration: 00:02:05
      2014-05-07

      NASA | 3 Days in 1 Minute: Stacking the MMS Spacecraft
      The Magnetospheric Multiscale, or MMS, mission stacked all four of its spacecraft in preparation for vibration testing. This time lapse shows one image every thirty seconds over three days of work. First, the spacecraft are assembled into mini-stacks, or placed on top of each other in sets of two. To create a full stack, engineers lift one mini-stack on top of another. Vibration testing simulates the conditions that the MMS spacecraft will experience during launch. MMS will study how the sun and the Earth's magnetic fields connect and disconnect, an explosive process that can accelerate particles through space to nearly the speed of light. This process is called magnetic reconnection and can occur throughout all space.
      Duration: 00:01:06
      2014-05-07

      NASA | NIRSpec Instrument Gets Integrated into Webb's ISIM
      Engineers install the Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) onto the Webb Telescope's Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) in NASA Goddard Space Flight Center cleanroom. This delicate procedure took place during March 24 and March 25, 2014 in preparation for the cryogenic test of a fully integrated ISIM structure to occur this summer.
      Duration: 00:01:05
      2014-05-07

      NASA | NIRCam Gets Integrated into Webb's ISIM
      Video of engineers integrating the NIRCam instrument into Webb's ISIM structure at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
      Duration: 00:01:05
      2014-05-07

      NASA | Understanding Lunar Eclipses
      It's not often that we get a chance to see our planet's shadow, but a lunar eclipse gives us a fleeting glimpse, as the Earth's shadow is projected onto the full Moon over the course of a few hours. Though a lunar eclipse can be seen only at night, it's worth staying up to catch the show.
      Duration: 00:02:00
      2014-05-07

      NASA | Need To Know: Lunar Eclipse and LRO
      On April 15th, 2014 there will be a total lunar eclipse visible from North America. Noah Petro, LRO Deputy Project Scientist, discusses this unique event and what effect it will have on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO).
      Duration: 00:03:04
      2014-05-07

      NASA | Graceful Eruption
      A mid-level flare, an M6.5, erupted from the sun on April 2, 2014, peaking at 10:05 a.m. EDT. This image from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory shows the flare in a blend of two wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light: 304 Angstroms and 171 Angstroms, colorized in red and yellow, respectively.
      Duration: 00:01:02
      2014-05-07

      NASA | Satellite Shows High Productivity From U.S. Corn Belt
      Data from satellite sensors show that during the Northern Hemisphere's growing season, the Midwest region of the United States boasts more photosynthetic activity than any other spot on Earth, according to NASA and university scientists.
      Duration: 00:00:53
      2014-05-07

      NASA | Arctic Melt Season Lengthening, Ocean Rapidly Warming
      The length of the melt season for Arctic sea ice is growing by several days each decade, and an earlier start to the melt season is allowing the Arctic Ocean to absorb enough additional solar radiation in some places to melt as much as four feet of the Arctic ice cap's thickness, according to a new study by National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and NASA researchers.
      Duration: 00:00:58
      2014-05-07

      NASA | GPM's Stormy New View
      On March 10, the Core Observatory passed over an extra-tropical cyclone about 1055 miles (1700 kilometers) due east of Japan's Honshu Island. This visualization shows data from the GPM Microwave Imager, which observes different types of precipitation with 13 channels. Scientists analyze that data and then use it to calculate the light to heavy rain rates and falling snow within the storm.
      Duration: 00:01:05
      2014-03-26

      NASA | Jim Garvin's Top Pics -- LROC Images
      NASA Scientist Jim Garvin selects what he considers to be the five best images taken by LROC – the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera.
      Duration: 00:03:02
      2014-03-26

      NASA | Teaming Up to Test the Future of Satellite Refueling
      Deputy Project Manager Benjamin Reed, Test Director Marion Riley, Lead Oxidizer Nozzle Tool Engineer Matthew Sammons, Robotic Operator Alex Janas, and Lead Fluids Engineer Brian Nufer describe the Remote Robotic Oxidizer Transfer Test (RROxiTT) that took place in February, 2014 and the applications of satellite servicing technology.
      Duration: 00:03:09
      2014-03-26

      NASA | Studying the Solar Wind on Mars
      Robert Lin, the late director of the Space Sciences Laboratory, discusses how NASA's MAVEN spacecraft will study the interaction of the Martian atmosphere with the solar wind. MAVEN's findings will reveal how Mars lost its early atmosphere, turning it from a warm, wet planet into the cold, dry one that we see today.
      Duration: 00:03:04
      2014-03-26

      NASA | Landsat Tracks Urban Change and Flood Risk
      Landsat data is used by MacDonald, Dettwiler, and Associates, LTD to make the National Urban Change Indicator, or NUCI. The process identifies areas of “permanent change,” where soil has been paved over for parking lots or other concrete structures. Areas of urban change indicate where flood risk maps might need to be updated.
      Duration: 00:03:01
      2014-03-26

      NASA | Colliding Comets Hint at Unseen Exoplanet
      NASA Goddard's Aki Roberge explains how observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array in Chile tell us about poison gas, comet swarms, and a hypothetical planet around Beta Pictoris.
      Duration: 00:02:08
      2014-03-26

      NASA | GPM Rocket Launch
      A Japanese H-IIA rocket with the NASA-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory onboard, is seen launching from th Tanegashima Space Center, Friday, Feb. 28, 2014, Tanegashima Space Center. The GPM spacecraft will collect information that unifies data from an international network of existing and future satellites to map global rainfall and snowfall every three hours.
      Duration: 00:06:09
      2014-02-28

      NASA | Landsat 8 Celebrates First Year in Orbit
      On Feb. 11, 2013, Landsat 8 launched into Earth orbit, riding on an Atlas V rocket. Weighing 6,133 pounds, Landsat 8 is the eigth satellite in the long-running Landsat program, jointly managed by NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey.
      Duration: 00:03:02
      2014-02-28

      NASA | MMS Engineering Challenges
      It's hard enough to build one spacecraft, but the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) is building four. Together, the spacecraft will unlock the mysteries of magnetic reconnection, when magnetic fields explosively connect and disconnect, transferring energy.
      Duration: 00:01:08
      2014-02-28

      NASA | Peeling Back Landsat's Layers of Data
      Landsat satellites circle the globe, recording data in 11 different wavelengths. The individual wavelength bands can be combined into color images, with different combinations of the 11 bands revealing different information about the condition of the land cover.
      Duration: 00:02:09
      2014-02-28

      NASA | NASA's IRIS Spots Its Largest Solar Flare
      On Jan. 28, 2014, NASA's newly-launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer, or IRIS, observed its strongest solar flare to date.
      Duration: 00:00:59
      2014-02-21

      NASA | A Black Widow Pulsar Consumes its Mate
      Learn how astronomers discovered PSR J1311-3430, a record-breaking black widow binary and the first of its kind discovered solely through gamma-ray observations.
      Duration: 00:09:07
      2014-02-20

      NASA | Goddard's Detector Technology
      Behind those stunning NASA images are specialized detectors developed, fabricated, and packaged here at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Tour the Detector Development Lab (DDL) and see how these first-of-a-kind detectors are created. With their unique tool sets and capabilities, the DDL has helped NASA stay on the cutting edge of instrument development and scientific discovery.
      Duration: 00:06:03
      2014-02-19

      NASA | RROxiTT: Another Step Toward Servicing Satellites in Space
      NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland and Kennedy Space Center in Florida are joining teams and efforts to test new robotic refueling technologies that could help satellites live longer in space. During the test, a robotic arm with a highly specialized tool transfers satellite oxidizer -- an extremely corrosive fluid that helps propel satellites in orbit -- through the valve of a simulated spacecraft. Adding to the complexity, the test is being operated remotely from Goddard while performed at Kennedy's Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility. The test simulates the refueling of a spacecraft in orbit, an extremely challenging task that the team has been tackling since they launched the successful Robotic Refueling Mission demonstration to the International Space Station in 2011. In this video, robotic arm operator Alex Janas introduces RROxiTT (Remote Robotic Oxidizer Transfer Test) while standing next to the robotic arm. He also teases an upcoming, longer video that will go into further detail and show footage from the actual test.
      Duration: 00:01:09
      2014-02-12

      NASA | SDO: Year 4
      Massive solar flares, graceful eruptions of solar material, and an enormous sunspot make up some of the imagery captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory during its fourth year in orbit.
      Duration: 00:03:07
      2014-02-12

      NASA | Landsat's Orbit
      As a Landsat satellite flies over the surface of the Earth the instruments aboard the satellite are able to view a swath 185 kilometers wide and collect images along that swath as the satellite proceeds through its orbit. The spacecraft travels at approximately 4.7 miles per second. The satellite travels from north to south while it's over the sunlit portion of the Earth, and travels south to north over the dark side of the Earth. One orbit takes about 99 minutes, so that's about approximately 15 orbits in a 24 hour period. The orbit's maintained such that after 16 days, the entire surface of the Earth has come within view of the Landsat instruments, while sunlit, and then on day 17 the first ground path is repeated. So we get to view the entire surface once every 16 days.
      Duration: 00:01:03
      2014-02-12

      NASA | What is a Pulsar?
     
      Duration: 00:01:02
      2014-02-12

      NASA | Dynamic Earth Excerpt: Viz Challenge Winner
      A giant explosion of magnetic energy from the sun, called a coronal mass ejection, slams into and is deflected completely by the Earth's powerful magnetic field. The sun also continually sends out streams of light and radiation energy. Earth's atmosphere acts like a radiation shield, blocking quite a bit of this energy. Much of the radiation energy that makes it through is reflected back into space by clouds, ice and snow and the energy that remains helps to drive the Earth system, powering a remarkable planetary engine — the climate. It becomes the energy that feeds swirling wind and ocean currents as cold air and surface waters move toward the equator and warm air and water moves toward the poles — all in an attempt to equalize temperatures around the world. A jury appointed by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and Science magazine has selected "Excerpt from Dynamic Earth" as the winner of the 2013 NSF International Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge for the Video category. This animation will be highlighted in the February 2014 special section of Science and will be hosted on ScienceMag.org and NSF.gov This animation was selected for the Computer Animation Festival's Electronic Theater at the Association for Computer Machinery's Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (SIGGRAPH), a prestigious computer graphics and technical research forum. This is an excerpt from the fulldome, high-resolution show 'Dynamic Earth: Exploring Earth's Climate Engine.' The Dynamic Earth dome show was selected as a finalist in the Jackson Hole Wildlife Film Festival Science Media Awards under the category "Best Immersive Cinema - Fulldome".
      Duration: 00:04:04
      2014-02-12

      NASA | Playing Tag With an Asteroid
      What's the best way get a sample of an asteroid? Play tag with it! That's the plan for OSIRIS-REx, a NASA spacecraft that will approach the asteroid Bennu in 2018. The collection will be done with an instrument on board called the Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism, or, TAGSAM. Learn how it works in this video.
      Duration: 00:03:05
      2014-02-04

      NASA | GOES-R Trailer
      The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites – R Series (GOES-R) is the next generation of geostationary weather satellites. The GOES-R series satellites will provide continuous imagery and atmospheric measurements of Earth's Western Hemisphere and space weather monitoring to provide critical atmospheric, hydrologic, oceanic, climatic, solar and space data. This video is a short trailer that creates awareness about the upcoming GOES-R mission.
      Duration: 00:01:02
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Disk Detective: Search for Planetary Habitats
      A new NASA-sponsored website, DiskDetective.org, lets the public discover embryonic planetary systems hidden among data from NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission. The site is led and funded by NASA and developed by the Zooniverse, a collaboration of scientists, software developers and educators who collectively develop and manage the Internet's largest, most popular and most successful citizen science projects. WISE, located in Earth orbit and designed to survey the entire sky in infrared light, completed two scans between 2010 and 2011. It took detailed measurements of more than 745 million objects, representing the most comprehensive survey of the sky at mid-infrared wavelengths currently available. Astronomers have used computers to search this haystack of data for planet-forming environments and narrowed the field to about a half-million sources that shine brightly in the infrared, indicating they may be "needles": dust-rich circumstellar disks that are absorbing their star's light and reradiating it as heat. Planets form and grow within these disks. But galaxies, interstellar dust clouds, and asteroids also glow in the infrared, which stymies automated efforts to identify planetary habitats. Disk Detective incorporates images from WISE and other sky surveys in the form of brief animations the website calls flip books. Volunteers view a flip book and then classify the object based on simple criteria, such as whether the image is round or includes multiple objects. By collecting this information, astronomers will be able to assess which sources should be explored in greater detail. The project aims to find two types of developing planetary environments. The first, known as young stellar object disks, typically are less than 5 million years old, contain large quantities of gas, and are often found in or near young star clusters. For comparison, our own solar system is 4.6 billion years old. The other type of habitat is called a debris disk. These systems tend to be older than 5 million years, possess little or no gas, and contain belts of rocky or icy debris that resemble the asteroid and Kuiper belts found in our own solar system. Vega and Fomalhaut, two of the brightest stars in the sky, host debris disks. Through Disk Detective, volunteers will help the astronomical community discover new planetary nurseries that will become future targets for NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope.
      Duration: 00:02:04
      2014-02-04

      NASA | TDRS: The Network That Enables Exploration
      NASA is preparing to launch the second in a series of three, third generation advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellites, known as TDRS. This latest addition to the fleet of eight, TDRS-L will augment a space communications network that provides the critical path for high data-rate communication to the International Space Station, Hubble Space Telescope, human occupied spacecraft and a host other spacecraft.
      Duration: 00:02:08
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Earthrise: The 45th Anniversary
      In December of 1968, the crew of Apollo 8 became the first people to leave our home planet and travel to another body in space. But as crew members Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders all later recalled, the most important thing they discovered was Earth. Using photo mosaics and elevation data from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), this video commemorates the 45th anniversary of Apollo 8's historic flight by recreating the moment when the crew first saw and photographed the Earth rising from behind the Moon. Narrator Andrew Chaikin, author of A Man on the Moon, sets the scene for a three-minute visualization of the view from both inside and outside the spacecraft accompanied by the onboard audio of the astronauts. The visualization draws on numerous historical sources, including the actual cloud pattern on Earth from the ESSA-7 satellite and dozens of photographs taken by Apollo 8, and it reveals new, historically significant information about the Earthrise photographs. It has not been widely known, for example, that the spacecraft was rolling when the photos were taken, and that it was this roll that brought the Earth into view. The visualization establishes the precise timing of the roll and, for the first time ever, identifies which window each photograph was taken from. The key to the new work is a set of vertical stereo photographs taken by a camera mounted in the Command Module's rendezvous window and pointing straight down onto the lunar surface. It automatically photographed the surface every 20 seconds. By registering each photograph to a model of the terrain based on LRO data, the orientation of the spacecraft can be precisely determined.
      Duration: 00:06:09
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Jewel Box Sun
      Telescopes help distant objects appear bigger, but this is only one of their advantages. Telescopes can also collect light in ranges that our eyes alone cannot see, providing scientists ways of observing a whole host of material and processes that would otherwise be inaccessible. A new NASA movie of the sun based on data from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO, shows the wide range of wavelengths - invisible to the naked eye - that the telescope can view. SDO converts the wavelengths into an image humans can see, and the light is colorized into a rainbow of colors. As the colors sweep around the sun in the movie, viewers should note how different the same area of the sun appears. This happens because each wavelength of light represents solar material at specific temperatures. Different wavelengths convey information about different components of the sun's surface and atmosphere, so scientists use them to paint a full picture of our constantly changing and varying star. Yellow light of 5800 Angstroms, for example, generally emanates from material of about 10,000 degrees F (5700 degrees C), which represents the surface of the sun. Extreme ultraviolet light of 94 Angstroms, which is typically colorized in green in SDO images, comes from atoms that are about 11 million degrees F (6,300,000 degrees C) and is a good wavelength for looking at solar flares, which can reach such high temperatures. By examining pictures of the sun in a variety of wavelengths - as is done not only by SDO, but also by NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and the European Space Agency/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory -- scientists can track how particles and heat move through the sun's atmosphere.
      Duration: 00:02:03
      2014-02-04

      NASA | The Coldest Place in the World
      The coldest place on earth is in the East Antarctic Plateau, but not at the highest peak. Rather, the coldest spots develop just donwhill from a ridge that runs from Dome A to Dome Fuji. Data from NASA-USGS Landsat 8 satellite, and NASA's MODIS sensor on the Aqua satellite.
      Duration: 00:02:04
      2014-02-04

      NASA | How to Get Colder Than Anywhere Else
      Narrated animation showing the process by which the coldest place on earth develops its extreme low temperatures.
      Duration: 00:00:60
      2014-02-04

      NASA | LCRD: From Vision to Reality
      Since its inception in 1958, NASA has relied exclusively on radio frequency (RF)-based communications as the only viable medium for exchanging data between a mission and a spacecraft. Today, with missions demanding communication with higher data rates than ever before, NASA is taking steps to embark on a new era of communication technology. The Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD) project will help pave the way, pioneering technologies that will enable the exchange of data through beams of light.
      Duration: 00:05:06
      2014-02-04

      NASA | GPM's Journey to Japan
      Built at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., the GPM spacecraft travelled roughly 7,300 miles (11,750 kilometers) to its launch site at Tanegashima Space Center on Tanegashima Island, Japan, where it is scheduled for liftoff on Feb 27, 2014 1:07 pm (EST). GPM's Core Observatory is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency to study rainfall and snowfall around the globe, including weather and storms that the Core Observatory previewed on its trans-Pacific journey.
      Duration: 00:02:02
      2014-02-04

      NASA | GPM: Engineering Next Generation Observations of Rain and Snow
      For the past three years, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory has gone from components and assembly drawings to a fully functioning satellite at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. The satellite has now arrived in Japan, where it will lift off in early 2014. The journey to the launch pad has been a long and painstaking process. It began with the most basic assembly of the satellite's frame and electrical system, continued through the integration of its two science instruments, and has now culminated in the completion of a dizzying array of environmental tests to check and recheck that GPM Core Observatory will survive its new home in orbit.
      Duration: 00:03:07
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Moon Phase and Libration South Up 2014
      The phase and libration of the Moon for 2014 at hourly intervals.
      Duration: 00:05:02
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Moon Phase and Libration North Up 2014
      The phase and libration of the Moon for 2014 at hourly intervals.
      Duration: 00:05:02
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Anatomy of a Raindrop
      This short video explains how a raindrop falls through the atmosphere and why a more accurate look at raindrops can improve estimates of global precipitation.
      Duration: 00:02:08
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Alien Atmospheres
      Although most of the planets outside of our solar system (called "exoplanets") are too distant to be seen, astronomers have developed indirect methods to determine their size, mass, and even their atmospheric makeup - taking us one step closer to finding a world like our own.
      Duration: 00:03:04
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Ask a Climate Scientist: Climate Change and Humans
      Will climate change affect humans? NASA's Tom Wagner says yes, in four different ways.
      Duration: 00:01:04
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Comet ISON's Full Perihelion Pass
      After several days of continued observations, scientists continue to work to determine and to understand the fate of Comet ISON: There's no doubt that the comet shrank in size considerably as it rounded the sun and there's no doubt that something made it out on the other side to shoot back into space. The question remains as to whether the bright spot seen moving away from the sun was simply debris, or whether a small nucleus of the original ball of ice was still there. Regardless, it is likely that it is now only dust. The comet was visible in instruments on NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory, or STEREO, and the joint European Space Agency/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, or SOHO, via images called coronagraphs.
      Duration: 00:01:06
      2014-02-04

      NASA | How to Cook a Comet
      A comet's journey through the solar syste is perilous and violent. Before it reaches Mars - at some 230 million miles away from the sun - the radiation of the sun begins to cook off the frozen water ice directly into gas. This is called sublimation. It is the first step toward breaking the comet apart. If it survives this, the intense radiation and pressure closer to the sun could destroy it altogether. Such a journey is currently being made by Comet ISON. It began its trip from the Oort cloud region of our solar system and is now traveling toward the sun. The comet will reach its closest approach to the sun on Thanksgiving Day -- Nov. 28, 2013 -- skimming just 730,000 miles above the sun's surface. If it comes around the sun without breaking up, the comet will be visible in the Northern Hemisphere with the naked eye, and from what we see now, ISON is predicted to be a particularly bright and beautiful comet. Even if the comet does not survive, tracking its journey will help scientists understand what the comet is made of, how it reacts to its environment, and what this explains about the origins of the solar system. Closer to the sun, watching how the comet and its tail interact with the vast solar atmosphere can teach scientists more about the sun itself.
      Duration: 00:02:00
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Firefly Mission to Study Lightning
      This short teaser video introduces us to the mission of Firefly, a CubeSat built by undergraduate students with the partnership of Goddard Space Flight Center and the National Science Foundation.
      Duration: 00:02:02
      2014-02-04

      NASA | When Trees Fall, Landsat Maps Them
      Twelve years of global deforestation, wildfires, windstorms, insect infestations, and more are captured in a new set of forest disturbance maps created from billions of pixels acquired by the imager on the NASA-USGS Landsat 7 satellite.
      Duration: 00:03:07
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Mars Evolution
      Billions of years ago when the Red Planet was young, it appears to have had a thick atmosphere that was warm enough to support oceans of liquid water - a critical ingredient for life. The animation shows how the surface of Mars might have appeared during this ancient clement period, beginning with a flyover of a Martian lake. The artist's concept is based on evidence that Mars was once very different. Rapidly moving clouds suggest the passage of time, and the shift from a warm and wet to a cold and dry climate is shown as the animation progresses. The lakes dry up, while the atmosphere gradually transitions from Earthlike blue skies to the dusty pink and tan hues seen on Mars today.
      Duration: 00:01:09
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Ask A Climate Scientist - Extreme Weather and Global Warming
      Is global warming having an impact on extreme weather events? At this point, says Bill Patzert of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, not much although it likely will in the future.
      Duration: 00:02:01
      2014-02-04

      NASA | MAVEN: NASA's Next Mission to Mars
      Ancient riverbeds, crater lakes and flood channels all attest to Mars's warm, watery past. So how did the Red Planet evolve from a once hospitable world into the cold, dry desert that we see today? One possibility is that Mars lost its early atmosphere, allowing its water to escape into space, and NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft will investigate just that. On September 25, 2013, MAVEN Principal Investigator Bruce Jakosky delivered a presentation at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, discussing NASA's next mission to Mars. MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN) is NASA's next mission to Mars, designed to figure out how the Red Planet lost its early atmosphere to space. Principal Investigator Bruce Jakosky discusses Mars's missing atmosphere and the challenges of building the MAVEN spacecraft.
      Duration: 00:07:07
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Mars Atmospheric Loss: Sputtering
      When you take a look at Mars, you probably wouldn't think that it looks like a nice place to live. It's dry, it's dusty, and there's practically no atmosphere. But some scientists think that Mars may have once looked like a much nicer place to live, with a thicker atmosphere, cloudy skies, and possibly even liquid water flowing over the surface. So how did Mars transform from a warm, wet world to a cold, barren desert? NASA's MAVEN spacecraft will give us a clearer idea of how Mars lost its atmosphere (and thus its water), and scientists think that several processes have had an impact. How did Mars, a once wet planet, lose its early atmosphere? One possibility is through a process called "sputtering," in which atoms are knocked away from the atmosphere due to impacts with energetic particles.
      Duration: 00:02:01
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Mars Atmosphere Loss: Plasma Processes
      When you take a look at Mars, you probably wouldn't think that it looks like a nice place to live. It's dry, it's dusty, and there's practically no atmosphere. But some scientists think that Mars may have once looked like a much nicer place to live, with a thicker atmosphere, cloudy skies, and possibly even liquid water flowing over the surface. So how did Mars transform from a warm, wet world to a cold, barren desert? NASA's MAVEN spacecraft will give us a clearer idea of how Mars lost its atmosphere (and thus its water), and scientists think that several processes have had an impact. Mars's thick early atmosphere was likely lost to space, and the Sun is a potential culprit. When high-energy solar photons strike the upper Martian atmosphere they can ionize gas molecules, causing the atmosphere to erode over time.
      Duration: 00:01:07
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Mars Atmosphere Loss: Neutral Processes
      When you take a look at Mars, you probably wouldn't think that it looks like a nice place to live. It's dry, it's dusty, and there's practically no atmosphere. But some scientists think that Mars may have once looked like a much nicer place to live, with a thicker atmosphere, cloudy skies, and possibly even liquid water flowing over the surface. So how did Mars transform from a warm, wet world to a cold, barren desert? NASA's MAVEN spacecraft will give us a clearer idea of how Mars lost its atmosphere (and thus its water), and scientists think that several processes have had an impact. Scientists think that the collision of neutral hydrogen molecules may have helped to drive the Martian atmosphere into space over billions of years.
      Duration: 00:01:06
      2014-02-04

      NASA | A Laser Scientist Answers 5 Questions About LVIS
      With winter closing in, a new NASA airborne campaign got under way October 31, 2013 in Greenland. For the first time, the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor, or LVIS, is flying aboard NASA's new C-130 aircraft to measure the island's ice following a summer's melt. This data will complement measurements the LVIS instrument has taken in previous springtime campaigns as a part of Operation IceBridge, a six-year multi-instrument survey over both Arctic and Antarctic ice.
      Duration: 00:04:03
      2014-02-04

      NASA | Ask a Climate Scientist: Global Warming Pause?
      Is there a pause in global warming? This question was posed to Jet Propulsion Laboratory scientist Josh Willis as part of NASA's Ask A Climate Scientist campaign. Josh gets asked a lot if there has been a pause in global warming, because temperatures aren't increasing as fast as they were a decade ago. No, he says, global warming is definitely still increasing. We see more heat being trapped in the oceans, and sea levels are rising. Look at the sea level record for the last decade. It's going up like gangbusters, hasn't slowed down. There's not really a pause in global warming. Sometimes there's natural fluctuations and we warm up a little faster in one decade and a little slower in another decade, but global warming, human-caused climate change? Josh says, "that's definitely going right on up in there. We haven't slowed down at all."
      Duration: 00:01:02
      2013-10-30

      NASA | Five Years of Great Discoveries for NASA's IBEX
      Launched on Oct. 19, 2008, the Interstellar Boundary Explorer, or IBEX, spacecraft, is unique to NASA's heliophysics fleet: it images the outer boundary of the heliosphere, a boundary at the furthest edges of the solar system, far past the planets, some 8 million miles away. There, the constant stream of solar particles flowing off the sun, the solar wind, pushes up against the interstellar material flowing in from the local galactic neighborhood. IBEX is also different because it creates images from particles instead of light. IBEX, scientists create maps from the observed neutral atoms. Some are of non-solar origin, others were created by collisions of solar wind particles with other neutral atoms far from the sun. Observing where these energetic neutral atoms, or ENAs, come from describes what's going on in these distant regions. Over the course of six months and many orbits around Earth, IBEX can paint a picture of the entire sky in ENAs. During its first five years, IBEX has made some astounding discoveries. IBEX is a NASA Heliophysics Small Explorer mission. The Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas, leads IBEX with teams of national and international partners. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., manages the Explorers Program for the agency's Science Mission Directorate in Washington.
      Duration: 00:04:06
      2013-10-30

      NASA | Five Days of Flares and CMEs
      This movie shows 23 of the 26 M- and X-class flares on the sun between 18:00 UT Oct. 23 and 15:00 UT Oct. 28, 2013, as captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory. It also shows the coronal mass ejections -- great clouds of solar material bursting off the sun into space -- during that time as captured by the ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory.
      Duration: 00:02:06
      2013-10-30

      NASA | Canyon of Fire on the Sun
      A magnetic filament of solar material erupted on the sun in late September, breaking the quiet conditions in a spectacular fashion. The 200,000 mile long filament ripped through the sun's atmosphere, the corona, leaving behind what looks like a canyon of fire. The glowing canyon traces the channel where magnetic fields held the filament aloft before the explosion. Visualizers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. combined two days of satellite data to create a short movie of this gigantic event on the sun. In reality, the sun is not made of fire, but of something called plasma: particles so hot that their electrons have boiled off, creating a charged gas that is interwoven with magnetic fields. These images were captured on Sept. 29-30, 2013, by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO, which constantly observes the sun in a variety of wavelengths. Different wavelengths help capture different aspect of events in the corona. The red images shown in the movie help highlight plasma at temperatures of 90,000° F and are good for observing filaments as they form and erupt. The yellow images, showing temperatures at 1,000,000° F, are useful for observing material coursing along the sun's magnetic field lines, seen in the movie as an arcade of loops across the area of the eruption. The browner images at the beginning of the movie show material at temperatures of 1,800,000° F, and it is here where the canyon of fire imagery is most obvious. By comparing this with the other colors, one sees that the two swirling ribbons moving farther away from each other are, in fact, the footprints of the giant magnetic field loops, which are growing and expanding as the filament pulls them upward.
      Duration: 00:02:03
      2013-10-30

      NASA | Propylene on Titan
      Saturn's large moon Titan is the only natural satellite in the solar system to possess a substantial atmosphere. When Voyager 1 flew by Titan in 1980, it detected several species of hydrocarbons (like propane and ethylene) that we use for fuel and industrial applications on Earth. But one molecule was curiously missing: propylene, the main ingredient in plastic number 5. Now, thanks to new data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, scientists have found the missing molecule and solved one of Titan's most elusive mysteries.
      Duration: 00:04:00
      2013-09-30

      NASA | California Polytechnic Institute Students bring JWST Model to NASA GSFC
      Engineering students from California Polytechnic Institute brought their Webb Telescope deployment model to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The students demonstrated this detailed, robotic version of Webb for the NASA team building the real thing. It's a one - sixth scale model, and it performs the deployments the Webb Telescope will carry out before it begins science gathering.
      Duration: 00:01:06
      2013-09-30

      NASA | IPCC Projections of Temperature and Precipitation in the 21st Century
      Climate models used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimate global temperature and precipitation patterns will change throughout the 21st century given current rising greenhouse gas concentrations. This visualization is based on a scenario in which carbon dioxide concentrations reach 670 parts per million by 2100, up from around 400 ppm today.
      Duration: 00:03:09
      2013-09-30

      NASA | Tracking Energy through Space
      Taking advantage of an unprecedented alignment of eight satellites through the vast magnetic environment that surrounds Earth in space, including NASA's ARTEMIS and THEMIS, scientists now have comprehensive details of the energy's journey through a process that forms the aurora, called a substorm. Their results showed that small events unfolding over the course of a millisecond can result in energy flows that last up to half an hour and cover an area 10 times larger than Earth. Trying to understand how gigantic explosions on the sun can create space weather effects involves tracking energy from the original event all the way to Earth. It's not unlike keeping tabs on a character in a play with many costume changes, because the energy changes form frequently along its journey: magnetic energy causes eruptions that lead to kinetic energy as particles hurtle away, or thermal energy as the particles heat up. Near Earth, the energy can change through all these various forms once again. Most of the large and small features of substorms take place largely in the portion of Earth's magnetic environment called the magnetotail. Earth sits inside a large magnetic bubble called the magnetosphere. As Earth orbits around the sun, the solar wind from the sun streams past the bubble, stretching it outward into a teardrop. The magnetotail is the long point of the teardrop trailing out to more than 1 million miles on the night side of Earth. The moon orbits Earth much closer, some 240,000 miles away, crossing in and out of the magnetotail.
      Duration: 00:02:03
      2013-09-30

      NASA | ISIM Goes into Huge Space Environment Simulator
      The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), which is the heart of the Webb Telescope, is placed into the Space Environment Simulator (SES) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center for cryogenic testing. During this test, the ISIM is supporting the Mid-InfraRed Instument (MIRI) and the Fine Guidance Sensor / Near InfraRed Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (FGS/NIRISS).
      Duration: 00:07:02
      2013-09-30

      NASA | Ask A Climate Scientist - lagging CO2
      Is there any merit to the studies that show that historical CO2 levels lag behind temperature, and not lead them? This question was posed to Goddard Space Flight Center climate scientist Peter Hildebrand as part of NASA's Ask A Climate Scientist campaign.
      Duration: 00:01:07
      2013-09-24

      NASA | Chasing Comet ISON
      This animation shows two views of comet ISON's path through the inner solar system. The first is a view following the comet along its orbit. The second is a view perpendicular to ISON's orbit.
      Duration: 00:01:05
      2013-09-24

      NASA | Ask A Climate Scientist - Food Production
      Will climate change drastically reduce our food production, or will it change what we produce? This question was posed to Goddard Space Flight Center's Molly Brown as part of NASA's Ask A Climate Scientist campaign.
      Duration: 00:01:09
      2013-09-18

      NASA | Planetary Scientist Profile: Emily Wilson
      NASA scientist Emily Wilson discusses her work developing miniaturized instruments that measure greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Her latest instrument, the mini-LHR, works in tandem with AERONET, and will contribute to the global effort to better understand climate change.
      Duration: 00:02:08
      2013-09-18

      NASA | Warm Ocean Melting Pine Island Glacier
      For five years an international team of experts, led by NASA emeritus glaciologist Robert Bindschadler and funded by the National Science Foundation and NASA, planned and orchestrated a mission to drill through the floating ice shelf of the Pine Island Glacier. Finally they persevered over harsh weather conditions, a short Antarctic field season, and the remote location of the glacier, and installed a variety of instruments to measure the properties of the ocean water below the ice shelf.
      Duration: 00:01:04
      2013-09-13

      NASA | Greenland's Mega Canyon
      Hidden for all of human history, a 460 mile long canyon has been discovered below Greenland's ice sheet. Using radar data from NASA's Operation IceBridge and other airborne campaigns, scientists led by a team from the University of Bristol found the canyon runs from near the center of the island northward to the fjord of the Petermann Glacier. A large portion of the data was collected by IceBridge from 2009 through 2012. One of the mission's scientific instruments, the Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder, operated by the Center for the Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets at the University of Kansas, can see through vast layers of ice to measure its thickness and the shape of bedrock below.
      Duration: 00:01:02
      2013-09-13

      NASA | Downloads the Future
      LLCD will be NASA's first-step in creating a high performance space-based laser communications system. The LLCD mission consists of space-based and ground-based components. The Lunar Laser Space Terminal (LLST) is an optical communications test payload to fly aboard the LADEE Spacecraft and it will demonstrate laser communications from lunar orbit.The ground segment consists of three ground terminals that will perform high-rate communication with the LLST aboard LADEE. The primary ground terminal, the Lunar Laser Ground Terminal (LLGT) is located in White Sands, NM and was developed by MIT/Lincoln Laboratory and NASA. The ground segment also includes two secondary terminals located at NASA/JPL's Table Mountain Facility in California and the European Space Agency's El Teide Observatory in Tenerife, Spain. The main goal of LLCD is proving fundamental concepts of laser communications and transferring data at a rate of 622 megabits per second (Mbps), which is about five times the current state-of-the-art from lunar distances. Engineers expect future space missions to benefit greatly from the use of laser communications technology.
      Duration: 00:02:04
      2013-09-05

      NASA | Ask a Climate Scientist
      The topic of climate change inspires a lot of debate. At NASA, it has also inspired a lot of science. NASA scientists examine the Earth's climate and how it is changing – gaining knowledge (or insight?) through decades of satellite observations, powerful computer models and expert scientific analysis. Over the course of September 2013, these NASA climate experts will answer selected questions through the agency's social media channels – primarily on YouTube, Twitter and Google+. But first – we need your questions. Have a question that's always confounded you about Earth's climate? Wonder why it matters that the climate is changing now if it has changed before? Or how scientists know changes seen in recent decades are the result of human activities, not natural causes? Go ahead. Ask a climate scientist.
      Duration: 00:01:03
      2013-09-05

      NASA | Fermi at Five Years
      This compilation summarizes the wide range of science from the first five years of NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Fermi is a NASA observatory designed to reveal the high-energy universe in never-before-seen detail. Launched in 2008, Fermi continues to give astronomers a unique tool for exploring high-energy processes associated with solar flares, spinning neutron stars, outbursts from black holes, exploding stars, supernova remnants and energetic particles to gain insight into how the universe works. Fermi detects gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, with energies thousands to billions of times greater than the visible spectrum. The mission has discovered pulsars, proved that supernova remnants can accelerate particles to near the speed of light, monitored eruptions of black holes in distant galaxies, and found giant bubbles linked to the central black hole in our own galaxy. From blazars to thunderstorms, from dark matter to supernova remnants, catch the highlights of NASA Fermi's first five years in space.
      Duration: 00:05:03
      2013-09-05

      NASA | From the Cockpit: The Best of IceBridge Arctic '13
      The views from the cockpit of NASA's P-3B aircraft on an Operation IceBridge campaign are truly stunning. The mission doesn't travel to both ends of the Earth for the scenery of course -- the airborne mission is there to collect radar, laser altimetry, and other data on the changing ice sheets, glaciers, and sea ice of the Arctic and Antarctic. But for those of us who aren't polar pilots, here's a selection of some of the best footage from the forward and nadir cameras mounted to the aircraft taken during IceBridge's spring deployment over Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. This video is a compilation of some of the best footage taken by the forward and nadir cameras mounted to NASA's P-3B aircraft during the Operation IceBridge Arctic 2013 airborne science campaign.
      Duration: 00:04:04
      2013-08-20

      NASA | NPP Sees Aftermath of the Chelyabinsk Meteor
      A meteor weighing 10,000 metric tons exploded only 23km above the city of Chelyabinsk in Russia on Feruary 15, 2013. Unlike previous such events, this time scientists had the highly sensitive OMPS instrument on NPP to deliver unprecedented data and help them track and study the meteor plume for months. This video shows how accurately the model prediction coincided with the satellite observations.
      Duration: 00:03:08
      2013-08-20

      NASA | 2013 Wildfires
      NASA scientist Dr. Doug Morton talks about the 2013 wildfire season as well as future trends for wildfires and how NASA resources are used to help detect and monitor wildfires around the world.
      Duration: 00:03:03
      2013-08-20

      NASA | HS3 Mission: S-HIS Instrument
      Interview with Henry "Hank" Revercomb, principal investigator for the NASA HS3 Mission's Scanning High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder Instrument. He is responsible for the infrared remote sensing of temperature, water vapor, and cloud fields from the Global Hawk aircraft monitoring the environment of hurricanes to help understand mechanisms for intensity changes. He is also the Director of University of Wisconsin-Madison's Space Science and Engineering Center.
      Duration: 00:02:02
      2013-08-20

      NASA | Zebra Crossing
      Botswana's Okavango Delta and the Makgadikgadi Salt Pans are two ends of a 360-mile round trip zebra migration, the second longest on Earth. In this animation, shades of red show dry areas, green represents vegetation, and the dots show GPS tracked zebras. The zebras begin at the Okavango Delta in late September. After the dry Southern hemisphere winter, November rains signal it is time to begin their two-week journey to the Salt Pans. The zebras feast on nutrient-rich grasses all summer, and return to the Delta as the rain peters out in April. Fences blocked this zebra migration from 1968 to 2004. After they came down, researchers began tracking zebras with GPS and discovered this migration. They compared the zebras' location to NASA satellite data of rainfall and vegetation, and they found that migrating zebras have quickly learned when to leave the Delta and the Salt Pans using environmental cues. Researchers then use these cues to predict when the zebras will be on the move, a powerful tool for conservation.
      Duration: 00:01:08
      2013-08-20

      NASA | Happy Birthday, Curiosity!
      On August 5, 2012 (PDT), NASA's Curiosity rover touched down on the Red Planet. Aboard was the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument, or SAM, the most sophisticated chemistry lab ever sent to another planet. Now, on the first anniversary of the landing, engineers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center are using SAM to "sing" Happy Birthday to Curiosity.
      Duration: 00:02:03
      2013-08-20

      NASA | Webb's NIRCam optical module arrives at NASA
      The optical module of Webb Telescope's primary imager, the Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) arrives at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on Saturday, July 27, 2013.
      Duration: 00:07:03
      2013-08-20

      NASA | Seeing Photosynthesis from Space
      NASA scientists have discovered a new way to use satellites to measure what's occurring inside Earth's land plants at a cellular level. During photosynthesis, plants emit what is called fluorescence – a form of light invisible to the naked eye but detectable by satellites orbiting hundreds of miles above Earth. NASA scientists established a method to turn this satellite data into global maps of the subtle phenomenon in more detail than ever before. The new maps – produced by Joanna Joiner of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., and colleagues – provide a 16-fold increase in spatial resolution and a 3-fold increase in temporal resolution over the first proof-of-concept maps released in 2011. Improved global measurements could have implications for farmers interested in early indications of crop stress, and ecologists looking to better understand global vegetation and carbon cycle processes. "For the first time, we are able to globally map changes in fluorescence over the course of a single month," Joiner said. "This lets us use fluorescence to observe, for example, variation in the length of the growing season."
      Duration: 00:02:09
      2013-08-09

      NASA | It Doesn't Take a Planet to Make Some Rings
      A study by NASA scientists sounds a cautionary note in interpreting rings and spiral arms as signposts for new planets. Thanks to interactions between gas and dust, a debris disk may, under the right conditions, produce narrow rings on its own, no planets needed. Many young stars known to host planets also possess disks containing dust and icy grains, particles produced by collisions among asteroids and comets also orbiting the star. These debris disks often show sharply defined rings or spiral patterns, features that could signal the presence of orbiting planets. Astronomers study the structures as a way to better understand the physical properties of known planets and possibly uncover new ones. When the mass of gas is roughly equal to the mass of dust, the two interact in a way that leads to clumping in the dust and the formation of patterns. Effectively, the gas shepherds the dust into the kinds of structures astronomers would expect to see if a planet were present. Lyra and Kuchner refer to this as the photoelectric instability and developed a simulation to explore its effects. This animation shows how the process alters the density of dust in a debris disk and rapidly leads to the formation of rings, arcs and oval structures.
      Duration: 00:39:03
      2013-08-09

      NASA | Seeing Photosynthesis from Space
      NASA scientists have discovered a new way to use satellites to measure what's occurring inside Earth's land plants at a cellular level. During photosynthesis, plants emit what is called fluorescence – a form of light invisible to the naked eye but detectable by satellites orbiting hundreds of miles above Earth. NASA scientists established a method to turn this satellite data into global maps of the subtle phenomenon in more detail than ever before. The new maps – produced by Joanna Joiner of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., and colleagues – provide a 16-fold increase in spatial resolution and a 3-fold increase in temporal resolution over the first proof-of-concept maps released in 2011. Improved global measurements could have implications for farmers interested in early indications of crop stress, and ecologists looking to better understand global vegetation and carbon cycle processes. "For the first time, we are able to globally map changes in fluorescence over the course of a single month," Joiner said. "This lets us use fluorescence to observe, for example, variation in the length of the growing season."
      Duration: 00:02:09
      2013-07-25

      NASA | MAVEN Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer
      While NASA rovers, landers, and orbiters have scrutinized the surface of Mars for decades, a key question to understanding the Red Planet's ancient habitability has hitherto gone unanswered: what happened to its atmosphere? NASA's MAVEN spacecraft will fill in this gap in the history of Mars, thanks in part to its Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer, or NGIMS. By studying the interaction of neutral gases and ions with the solar wind, NGIMS will observe current atmospheric escape processes on Mars and allow scientists to extrapolate back to the ancient atmosphere. The results could tell scientists just how long Mars was warm, wet, and hospitable, refining our understanding of its early potential for life.
      Duration: 00:02:04
      2013-07-17

      NASA | What is a Sungrazing Comet?
      Sungrazing comets are a special class of comets that come very close to the sun at their nearest approach, a point called perihelion. To be considered a sungrazer, a comet needs to get within about 850,000 miles from the sun at perihelion. Many come even closer, even to within a few thousand miles. Being so close to the sun is very hard on comets for many reasons. They are subjected to a lot of solar radiation which boils off their water or other volatiles. The physical push of the radiation and the solar wind also helps form the tails. And as they get closer to the sun, the comets experience extremely strong tidal forces, or gravitational stress. In this hostile environment, many sungrazers do not survive their trip around the sun. Although they don't actually crash into the solar surface, the sun is able to destroy them anyway. Many sungrazing comets follow a similar orbit, called the Kreutz Path, and collectively belong to a population called the Kreutz Group. In fact, close to 85% of the sungrazers seen by the SOHO satellite are on this orbital highway. Scientists think one extremely large sungrazing comet broke up hundreds, or even thousands, of years ago, and the current comets on the Kreutz Path are the leftover fragments of it. As clumps of remnants make their way back around the sun, we experience a sharp increase in sungrazing comets, which appears to be going on now. Comet Lovejoy, which reached perihelion on December 15, 2011 is the best known recent Kreutz-group sungrazer. And so far, it is the only one that NASA's solar-observing fleet has seen survive its trip around the sun. Comet ISON, an upcoming sungrazer with a perihelion of 730,000 miles on November 28, 2013, is not on the Kreutz Path. In fact, ISON's orbit suggests that it may gain enough momentum to escape the solar system entirely, and never return. Before it does so, it will pass within about 40 million miles from Earth on December 26th. Assuming it survives its trip around the sun.
      Duration: 00:03:01
      2013-07-16

      NASA | X Marks the Spot: SDO Sees Reconnection
      Two NASA spacecraft have provided the most comprehensive movie ever of a mysterious process at the heart of all explosions on the sun: magnetic reconnection. Magnetic reconnection happens when magnetic field lines come together, break apart, and then exchange partners, snapping into new positions and releasing a jolt of magnetic energy. This process lies at the heart of giant explosions on the sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections, which can fling radiation and particles across the solar system. Magnetic field lines, themselves, are invisible, but the sun's charged plasma particles course along their length. Space telescopes can see that material appearing as bright lines looping and arcing through the sun's atmosphere, and so map out the presence of magnetic field lines. Looking at a series of images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scientists saw two bundles of field lines move toward each other, meet briefly to form what appeared to be an “X” and then shoot apart with one set of lines and its attendant particles leaping into space and one set falling back down onto the sun. To confirm what they were seeing, the scientists turned to a second NASA spacecraft, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). RHESSI collects spectrograms, a kind of data that can show where exceptionally hot material is present in any given event on the sun. RHESSI showed hot pockets of solar material forming above and below the reconnection point, an established signature of such an event. By combining the SDO and RHESSI data, the scientists were able to describe the process of what they were seeing, largely confirming previous models and theories, while revealing new, three-dimensional aspects of the process.
      Duration: 00:01:07
      2013-07-10

      NASA | IBEX Maps Solar System's Tail
      NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer, or IBEX, recently mapped the boundaries of the solar system's tail, called the heliotail. By combining observations from the first three years of IBEX imagery, scientists have mapped out a tail that shows a combination of fast and slow moving particles. The entire structure twisted, because it experiences the pushing and pulling of magnetic fields outside the solar system.
      Duration: 00:02:05
      2013-07-10

      NASA | GROVER in Greenland
      From May 6 to June 8, 2013, GROVER was in Greenland. GROVER, the Goddard Remotely Operated Vehicle for Exploration and Research, also known as the Greenland Rover, was based at Summit Camp on the ice sheet of Greenland. NASA's Dr. Lora Koenig was working with two students from Boise State University, Gabriel Trisca and Mark Robertson, to evaluate the robot for polar research.
      Duration: 00:02:09
      2013-07-08

      NASA | Planetary Scientist Profile: Brent Garry
      Studying volcanoes and lava flows on Earth are just a part of Brent Garry's job. His work also takes him to the surface of the Moon and Mars. As a geologist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Brent specializes in planetary volcanology, where he investigates volcanic activity throughout the solar system. His work demonstrates how geology is an exciting science that helps us to understand some of the most common and fundamental forces affecting planets and moons in the universe.
      Duration: 00:02:08
      2013-07-08

      NASA | IRIS: The Science of NASA's Newest Solar Explorer
      At the end of June 2013, NASA will launch its newest mission to watch the sun: the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, or IRIS. IRIS will show the lowest levels of the sun's atmosphere, the interface region, in more detail than has even been observed before. This will help scientists understand how the energy dancing through this area helps power the sun's million-degree upper atmosphere, the corona, as well as how this energy powers the solar wind constantly streaming off the sun to fill the entire solar system. Data visualizations courtesy of Mats Carlsson and Viggo Hansteen, University of Oslo, Norway
      Duration: 00:03:05
      2013-06-19

      NASA | LRO Fourth Anniversary
      Four years ago, NASA made a long promised return visit to a place so legendary in the history of space exploration that it felt like a reunion with a long lost relative. With the liftoff of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), NASA made a bold statement about its commitment to exploring Earth's closest neighbor, as well as other parts of the solar system. In the years since it rose on its rocket, LRO has amassed a stunning array of data on a wide range of subjects. From vital research about the formation of the early solar system, to fundamental research about the structure and natural history of the Moon itself, LRO continues to deliver state-of-the-art information about a place that almost every human being has pondered as it drifts through our skies and our collective imaginations.
      Duration: 00:03:01
      2013-06-19

      NASA | Deborah Amato Women@NASA 2013
      The Women@NASA project is the perfect opportunity to celebrate women from across the agency who contribute to NASA's mission in many ways. Deputy Chief Technologist - Deborah Amato
      Duration: 00:05:01
      2013-06-18

      NASA | Bonnie Seaton Women@NASA 2013
      The Women@NASA project is the perfect opportunity to celebrate women from across the agency who contribute to NASA's mission in many ways. Deputy Grounds Segment and Operations Manager for the James Webb Space Telescope - Bonnie Seaton
      Duration: 00:05:03
      2013-06-18

      NASA | Julie Ann Rivera Perez Women@NASA 2013
      The Women@NASA project is the perfect opportunity to celebrate women from across the agency who contribute to NASA's mission in many ways. Contract Speicalist for the GOES-R Flight Project - Julie Ann Rivera Perez
      Duration: 00:04:07
      2013-06-18

      NASA | Peer into a Simulated Stellar-mass Black Hole
      This animation of supercomputer data takes you to the inner zone of the accretion disk of a stellar-mass black hole. Gas heated to 20 million degrees F as it spirals toward the black hole glows in low-energy, or soft, X-rays. Just before the gas plunges to the center, its orbital motion is approaching the speed of light. X-rays up to hundreds of times more powerful ("harder") than those in the disk arise from the corona, a region of tenuous and much hotter gas around the disk. Coronal temperatures reach billions of degrees. The event horizon is the boundary where all trajectories, including those of light, must go inward. Nothing, not even light, can pass outward across the event horizon and escape the black hole. Music: "Lost in Space" by Lars Leonhard, courtesy of artist.
      Duration: 00:02:07
      2013-06-14

      NASA | MAVEN Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph
      The philosophy of NASA's Mars Program has been "Follow the water," but "Where did the atmosphere go?" is still a lingering question. Although fluvial features such as dry riverbeds are visible on Mars, the atmosphere today is too thin to support liquid water, implying that Mars once had a thicker atmosphere that was lost to space. NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN Mission, or MAVEN, will test this hypothesis. As part of its remote sensing instrument package, MAVEN's Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) will look at isotopic hydrogen ratios in the upper atmosphere of Mars, helping scientists to determine just how much water once flowed across the Red Planet.
      Duration: 00:02:02
      2013-06-14

      NASA | Too Much, Too Little
      Researchers need accurate and timely rainfall information to better understand and model where and when severe floods, frequent landslides and devastating droughts may occur. GPM's global rainfall data will help to better prepare and respond to a wide range of natural disasters.
      Duration: 00:04:07
      2013-06-13

      NASA | Tracking a Superstorm
      This simulation runs from Oct. 26 to Oct. 31, 2012, highlighting Hurricane Sandy's near-surface (850 hPa) winds.
      Duration: 00:00:43
      2013-06-13

      NASA | South Up Moon Phase & Libration 2013: Moon with Additional Graphics
      The phase and libration of the Moon for 2013, at hourly intervals. Includes supplemental graphics that display the Moon's orbit, subsolar and sub-Earth points, and the Moon's distance from Earth at true scale. This version also features Brazilian Samba music and credit slates.
      Duration: 00:05:02
      2013-06-13

      NASA | Swift Provides the Best-Ever UV View of the Nearest Galaxies
      New surveys conducted by NASA's Swift provide the most detailed overviews ever captured in ultraviolet light of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, the two closest major galaxies to our own. Swift team member Stefan Immler, who proposed the imaging project, narrates this quick tour. All visible light imagery provided by Axel Mellinger, Central Michigan University
      Duration: 00:04:08
      2013-06-03

      NASA | Water on the Moon
      Since the 1960's, scientists have suspected that frozen water could survive in cold, dark craters at the Moon's poles. While previous lunar missions have detected hints of water on the Moon, new data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) pinpoints areas near the south pole where water is likely to exist. The key to this discovery is hydrogen, the main ingredient in water: LRO uses its Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector, or LEND, to measure how much hydrogen is trapped within the lunar soil. By combining years of LEND data, scientists see mounting evidence of hydrogen-rich areas near the Moon's south pole, strongly suggesting the presence of frozen water.
      Duration: 00:01:09
      2013-06-03

      NASA | Mission Trailer: IRIS Readies For a New Challenge
      In late June 2013, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, or IRIS, will launch from Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. IRIS will tease out the rules governing the lowest layers of the solar atmosphere -- historically some of the hardest to untangle. Known as the solar interface region, this is one of the most complex areas in the sun's atmosphere: all the energy that drives solar activity travels through it. The interface region lies between the sun’s 6,000-degree, white-hot, visible surface, the photosphere, and the much hotter multi-million-degree upper corona. Interactions between the violently moving plasma and the sun’s magnetic field in this area may well be the source of the energy that heats the corona to its million-degree temperatures, some hundreds and occasionally thousands of times hotter than the sun's surface. The chromosphere is also considered a candidate as the origin for giant explosions on the sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections. IRIS will use high-resolution images, data and advanced computer models to unravel how solar gases move, gather energy and heat up through the lower solar atmosphere. Outfitted with state-of-the-art tools, IRIS will be able to tease apart what's happening in the solar interface region better than ever before.
      Duration: 00:01:03
      2013-05-29

      NASA | Come Fly With Landsat
      Highlights of animation of Landsat data collected in one continuous pass over Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, on April 19, 2013. The selections in this video feature the Volga River in Russia, the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in Iraq, the cities of Medina and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, Mt. Elgon and Lake Victoria in Uganda and Kenya, and the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe. The data was collected by the Landsat Data Continuity Mission observatory, also known as Landsat 8.
      Duration: 00:04:00
      2013-05-29

      NASA | OSIRIS-REx Investigates Asteroid Bennu
      OSIRIS-REx will visit a Near Earth asteroid called Bennu and return with samples that may hold clues to the origins of the solar system and perhaps life itself. It will also investigate the asteroid's chance of impacting Earth in 2182. For the mission, NASA has selected the team led by Principal Investigator Dr. Dante Lauretta from the University of Arizona. NASA GSFC will manage the mission and Lockheed Martin Space Systems will build the spacecraft. Arizona State University will supply the OTES instrument; NASA GSFC will supply the OVIRS instrument; the Canadian Space Agency will supply the OLA instrument; the University of Arizona will supply the OCAMS camera suite; Harvard/MIT will supply the REXIS instrument; and Flight Dynamics will supply the KinetX instrument.
      Duration: 00:02:07
      2013-05-29

      NASA | First X-Class Solar Flares of 2013
      On May 12-13 the sun erupted with an X1.7-class and an X2.8-class flare as well as two coronal mass ejections, or CMEs, off the upper left side of the sun. Solar material also danced and blew off the sun in what's called a prominence eruption, both in that spot and on the lower right side of the sun. This movie compiles imagery of this activity from NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory and from the ESA/NASA Solar Heliospheric Observatory.
      Duration: 00:03:05
      2013-05-29

      NASA | SDO: Three Years in Three Minutes--With Expert Commentary
      Video of three years-worth of SDO data at a wavelength of 171 Angstroms and then 4 different synchronized wavelengths: 171, 304, 193, and 4500. Information about the still image is below. Music: "A Lady's Errand of Love" - composed and performed by Martin Lass
      Duration: 00:04:00
      2013-05-13

      NASA | NASA's Heliophysics Fleet Captures May 1, 2013 Prominence Eruption and CME
      Several missions within NASA's Heliophysics System Observatory captured images of a gigantic eruption on the sun on May 1, 2013. Working together, such missions provide excellent coverage of a wide variety of solar events, a wealth of scientific data--and lots of beautiful imagery.
      Duration: 00:02:03
      2013-05-09

      NASA | GROVER Heads to Greenland
      NASA is ready to test a new student-designed rover at the Summit Camp in Greenland, a research station sitting on a two-mile thick sheet of ice. The Goddard Remotely Operated Vehicle for Exploration and Research, or GROVER, carries ground-penetrating radar capable of measuring snow accumulation over time.
      Duration: 00:03:00
      2013-05-06

      NASA | Fermi's Close Call with a Soviet Satellite
      NASA scientists don't often learn that their spacecraft is at risk of crashing into another satellite. But when Julie McEnery, the project scientist for NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, checked her email on March 29, 2012, she found herself facing this precise situation. While Fermi is in fine shape today, continuing its mission to map the highest-energy light in the universe, the story of how it sidestepped a potential disaster offers a glimpse at an underappreciated aspect of managing a space mission: orbital traffic control. As McEnery worked through her inbox, an automatically generated report arrived from NASA's Robotic Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis (CARA) team based at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. On scanning the document, she discovered that Fermi was just one week away from an unusually close encounter with Cosmos 1805, a dead Cold-War era spy satellite. The two objects, speeding around Earth at thousands of miles an hour in nearly perpendicular orbits, were expected to miss each other by a mere 700 feet. Although the forecast indicated a close call, satellite operators have learned the hard way that they can't be too careful. The uncertainties in predicting spacecraft positions a week into the future can be much larger than the distances forecast for their closest approach. With a speed relative to Fermi of 27,000 mph, a direct hit by the 3,100-pound Cosmos 1805 would release as much energy as two and a half tons of high explosives, destroying both spacecraft. The update on Friday, March 30, indicated that the satellites would occupy the same point in space within 30 milliseconds of each other. Fermi would have to move out of the way if the threat failed to recede. Because Fermi's thrusters were designed to de-orbit the satellite at the end of its mission, they had never before been used or tested, adding a new source of anxiety for the team. By Tuesday, April 3, the close approach was certain, and all plans were in place for firing Fermi's thrusters. The maneuver was performed by the spacecraft based on previously developed procedures. Fermi fired all thrusters for one second and was back doing science within the hour.
      Duration: 00:04:03
      2013-05-06

      NASA | SDO: Three Years of Sun in Three Minutes
      Video of three years-worth of SDO data at a wavelength of 171 Angstroms and then 4 different synchronized wavelengths: 171, 304, 193, and 4500. Information about the still image is below.
      Duration: 00:04:00
      2013-04-23

      NASA | Goddard Interns 2013
      Every year, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. recruits hundreds of interns to spend the summer working on revolutionary missions featuring state-of-the-art technology. This orientation video introduces interns to NASA Goddard's Greenbelt campus.
      Duration: 00:02:04
      2013-04-23

      NASA | Swift's Christmas Burst From Blue Supergiant Star Explosion
      GRB 101225A, better known as the "Christmas burst," was an unusually long-lasting gamma-ray burst. Because its distance was not measured, astronomers came up with two radically different interpretations. In the first, a solitary neutron star in our own galaxy shredded and accreted an approaching comet-like body. In the second, a neutron star was engulfed by, spiraled into and merged with an evolved giant star in a distant galaxy. Now, thanks to a measurement of the Christmas burst's host galaxy, astronomers have determined that it represented the collapse and explosion of a supergiant star hundreds of times larger than the sun.
      Duration: 00:01:09
      2013-04-16

      NASA | Our Wet Wide World
      The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide next-generation observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will launch a "Core" satellite carrying advanced instruments that will set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide will be used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. The GPM mission will help advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles, improve the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extend current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society.
      Duration: 00:04:03
      2013-04-16

      NASA | What Are Gamma Rays?
      What are Gamma rays. Interviews in short video.
      Duration: 00:01:07
      2013-04-16

      NASA | Flying Low over Southeast Greenland
      Few of us ever get to see Greenland's glaciers from 500 meters above the ice. But in this video — recorded on April 9, 2013 in southeast Greenland using a cockpit camera installed and operated by the National Suborbital Education and Research Center, or NSERC — we see what Operation IceBridge's pilots see as they fly NASA's P-3B airborne laboratory low over the Arctic. Following a glacier's sometimes winding flow line gives IceBridge researchers a perspective on the ice not possible from satellites which pass in straight lines overhead. By gathering such data, IceBridge is helping to build a continuous record of change in the polar regions.
      Duration: 00:01:05
      2013-04-16

      NASA | For Good Measure
      The need for measuring the when and where and how much of precipitation goes beyond our weekend plans. We also need to know precipitaiton on a global scale. Rain gauges and radars are useful but are inconsistent and do not cover enough of the globe to provide accurate precipitation rates. The GPM constellation will cover the globe and give us a more comprehensive look at precipitation.
      Duration: 00:02:00
      2013-04-11

      NASA | Keeping a Close Eye on Jakobshavn
      Jakobshavn Glacier, one of the fastest moving glaciers in Greenland, has been the focus of IceBridge survey flights for five consecutive years. Here, images from an IceBridge mission on Apr. 4, 2013 and video footage from the 2012 Arctic campaign show this rapidly changing ice stream and how IceBridge is using its suite of airborne instruments to collect crucial data on ice movement and how much glaciers like Jakobshavn might contribute to future sea level rise.
      Duration: 00:02:00
      2013-04-09

      NASA | SEXTANT: Navigating by Cosmic Beacon
      Imagine a technology that would allow space travelers to transmit gigabytes of data per second over interplanetary distances or to navigate to Mars and beyond using powerful beams of light emanating from rotating neutron stars. The concept isn't farfetched. In fact, Goddard astrophysicists Keith Gendreau and Zaven Arzoumanian plan to fly a multi-purpose instrument on the International Space Station to demonstrate the viability of two groundbreaking navigation and communication technologies and, from the same platform, gather scientific data revealing the physics of dense matter in neutron stars.
      Duration: 00:01:07
      2013-04-09

      NASA | What is Fermi?
      The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a NASA observatory designed to reveal the high-energy universe in never-before-seen detail. With Fermi, astronomers have a unique tool to explore high-energy processes associated with solar flares, spinning neutron stars, outbursts from black holes, exploding stars, supernova remnants and energetic particles to gain insight into how the universe works. Fermi detects gamma rays, the most powerful form of light. How powerful? The energy of visible light falls between 2 and 3 electron volts, but the gamma rays detected by Fermi have energies several thousand to billions of times greater. Fermi carries two instruments. Its Large Area Telescope (LAT) is vastly more capable than instruments flown previously, with higher angular resolution, wider field of view, greater energy resolution and range, and more precise time resolution for each gamma ray detected. The LAT tracks gamma rays with energies from 20 million electron volts (MeV) to more than 300 billion electron volts (GeV). Fermi makes one orbit around Earth every 96 minutes and points the LAT upward at all times so our home planet never blocks its view of the cosmos. Scientists deliberately nod the LAT in a repeating pattern from one orbit to the next. It first looks north on one orbit, south on the next, and then north again, which allows the LAT to cover the entire sky in just two orbits. Every few weeks, the LAT deviates from its normal pattern to concentrate on particularly interesting targets, such as eruptions on the sun, brief but brilliant gamma-ray bursts associated with the birth of stellar-mass black holes, and outbursts from supermassive black holes in distant galaxies. Fermi's secondary instrument, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has a much larger field of view, covering the entire sky not blocked by Earth. The GBM provides spectral coverage from the lower limit of the LAT down to 8,000 electron volts. The GBM is now the premier detector of gamma-ray bursts and has provided new insight into terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, high-energy bursts produced above thunderstorms. With the LAT and GBM, Fermi is a flexible observatory for investigating the great range of astrophysical phenomena best studied in high-energy gamma rays. Since its launch on June 11, 2008, Fermi has made many discoveries.
      Duration: 00:01:04
      2013-04-09

      NASA | Comet ISON's Path Through the Solar System
      Comet ISON is now approaching the inner solar system. Discovered last year, the comet remains unusually active for its distance from the sun. If current trends continue, ISON could rank as one of the brightest comets in decades when it makes its close approach to the sun in late November. This animation shows the comet's approach and departure from the inner solar system from various perspectives.
      Duration: 00:01:09
      2013-03-29

      NASA | MAVEN Magnetometer
      MAVEN's dual magnetometers will allow scientists to study the interaction between the solar wind and the Martian atmosphere, giving us a better understanding of how Mars has evolved from a warm, wet climate to the cold, arid one we see today.
      Duration: 00:02:05
      2013-03-26

      NASA | STEREO Watches the Sun Blast Comet PanSTARRS
      This movie from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) shows comet PanSTARRS as it moved around the sun from March 10-15,2013 (repeated three times). The images were captured by the Heliospheric Imager (HI), an instrument that looks to the side of the sun to watch coronal mass ejections (CMEs) as they travel toward Earth, which is the unmoving bright orb on the right. The bright light on the left comes from the sun and the bursts from the left represent the solar material erupting off the sun in a CME. While it appears from STEREO's point of view that the CME passes right by the comet, the two are not lying in the same plane, which scientists know since the comet's tail didn't move or change in response to the CME's passage.
      Duration: 00:01:01
      2013-03-19

      NASA | Jupiter's Hot Spots
      Jupiter's bright Equatorial Zone swirls with dark patches, dubbed "hot spots" for their infrared glow. These holes in the ammonia clouds at the top of the atmosphere allow a glimpse into Jupiter's darker, hotter layers below. In 1995 NASA's Galileo spacecraft dropped a probe directly into a hot spot, taking the first and only in situ measurements of Jupiter's atmosphere. Now, movies recorded by NASA's Cassini spacecraft reveal that hot spots are not just local weather phenomena, but are in fact linked to much larger-scale atmospheric structures called Rossby waves.
      Duration: 00:02:01
      2013-03-19

      NASA | The Moon's Permanently Shadowed Regions
      Deep in the craters of the Moon's south pole lurk permanently shadowed regions: areas that have not seen sunlight in over two billion years. Now, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is shedding a new light on some of our satellite's darkest mysteries.
      Duration: 00:02:00
      2013-03-19

      NASA | Cosmic Ice
      NASA scientists at the Goddard Cosmic Ice Lab are studying a kind of chemistry almost never found on Earth. The extreme cold, hard vacuum, and high radiation environment of space allows the formation of an unstructured form of solid water called amorphous ice. Often particles and organic compounds are trapped in this ice that could provide clues to life in the universe.
      Duration: 00:02:01
      2013-03-19

      NASA | Van Allen Probes Reveal Previously Undetected Radiation Belt Around Earth
      These two nearly identical spacecraft launched in August 2012 and with only six months in operation, they may well be rewriting science textbooks. The probes study the Van Allen belts, gigantic radiation belts surrounding Earth, which can swell dramatically in response to incoming energy from the sun, engulfing satellites and spacecraft and creating potential threats to manned space flight. James Van Allen discovered the radiation belts during the 1958 launch of the first successful U.S. satellite. Subsequent missions have observed parts of the belts, but what causes the dynamic variation in the region has remained something of a mystery.
      Duration: 00:01:03
      2013-03-19

      NASA | Aquarius: One Year Observing the Salty Seas
      A narrated tour of Aquarius sea surface salinity data highlighting interesting features including: the North Atlantic, Eastern Pacific, Amazon outflow, Labrador current, and Indian Ocean.
      Duration: 00:03:03
      2013-03-19

      NASA | Space Weather Vocabulary
      We are all familiar with weather on Earth, but how much do you know about weather in space? Suitable for all ages, this introduction to space weather covers vocabulary like coronal mass ejection (CME), solar wind, and solar flare. It also outlines potential effects of solar storms on our planet.
      Duration: 00:01:04
      2013-03-19

      NASA | Fiery Looping Rain on the Sun
      On July 19, 2012, an eruption occurred on the sun that produced a moderately powerful solar flare and a dazzling magnetic display known as coronal rain. Hot plasma in the corona cooled and condensed along strong magnetic fields in the region. Magnetic fields, are invisible, but the charged plasma is forced to move along the lines, showing up brightly in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength of 304 Angstroms, and outlining the fields as it slowly falls back to the solar surface.
      Duration: 00:04:03
      2013-03-19

      NASA | Fermi Proves Supernova Remnants Produce Cosmic Rays
      The husks of exploded stars produce some of the fastest particles in the cosmos. New findings by NASA's Fermi show that two supernova remnants accelerate protons to near the speed of light. The protons interact with nearby interstellar gas clouds, which then emit gamma rays.
      Duration: 00:03:07
      2013-03-19

      NASA | SDO: Year Three
      On Feb. 11, 2010, NASA launched an unprecedented solar observatory into space. The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) flew up on an Atlas V rocket, carrying instruments that scientists hoped would revolutionize observations of the sun. If all went according to plan, SDO would provide incredibly high-resolution data of the entire solar disk almost as quickly as once a second. When the science team released its first images in April of 2010, SDO's data exceeded everyone's hopes and expectations, providing stunningly detailed views of the sun. In the three years since then, SDO's images have continued to show breathtaking pictures and movies of eruptive events on the sun. Such imagery is more than just pretty, they are the very data that scientists study. By highlighting different wavelengths of light, scientists can track how material on the sun moves. Such movement, in turn, holds clues as to what causes these giant explosions, which, when Earth-directed, can disrupt technology in space. SDO is the first mission in a NASA's Living With a Star program, the goal of which is to develop the scientific understanding necessary to address those aspects of the sun-Earth system that directly affect our lives and society. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. built, operates, and manages the SDO spacecraft for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington, D.C.
      Duration: 00:03:09
      2013-03-19

      NASA | RRM: Mission to the Future Delivers the Goods
      Spacecraft design tests even ambitious engineering teams. The rigors of space flight place qualitative demands on hardware and software far beyond what's required for Earth-bound gear. But nothing's perfect. Even in space, things break; things run low on fuel; things need to be updated. What to do? In January of 2013, NASA's Robotic Refueling Mission completed a major test at the International Space Station. Using the Canadian Robot arm called Dextre, controllers at the Johnson Space Center and engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center demonstrated new technologies and techniques for refueling and repairing vehicles in orbit, without placing a single astronaut at risk. It's a story with roots dating back to the 1980's, and with RRM's twenty-first century on-orbit success, it shines a light on bold imaginings for a space-faring future that suddenly doesn't seem so far ahead. In this documentary we look at the lifecycle of this extraordinary initiative.
      Duration: 00:06:07
      2013-03-19

      NASA | OSIRIS-REx Targets NEO
      On February 15, 2013, a 45-meter asteroid designated 2012 DA14 will pass within 22,000 miles of Earth: the closest approach on record for an object of this size. Although such Near-Earth Objects, or NEO's, cross our planet's orbit on a regular basis, only a handful are large enough to pose a threat. One of these objects is another asteroid designated 1999 RQ36, a "leftover" from the formation of our solar system four-and-a-half billion years ago. In an effort to better understand NEO's and our planet's own origins, NASA is sending the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft to asteroid 1999 RQ36 to study the evolution of its orbit and to retrieve a sample for return to Earth. NASA is sending the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft to asteroid 1999 RQ36 to better understand the evolution of its orbit and to retrieve a pristine sample for study on Earth.
      Duration: 00:02:04
      2013-03-19

      NASA | The Changing Chesapeake
      Landsat is a critical and invaluable tool for characterizing the landscape and mapping it over time. Landsat data provides a baseline of observations for science about how human activities on the land affect water quality, affect wildlife habitat, affect air quality. The satellite imagery covers the entire 64,000 square miles of the Chesapeake Bay watershed (spanning six states and the District of Columbia). Without it we wouldn't be able to really understand how sources of nutrients and sediment have changed and where they are in the Chesapeake Bay. The Landsat Program is a series of Earth-observing satellite missions jointly managed by NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey. The narration in this video is by Peter Claggett, a research geographer with the U.S. Geological Survey's Eastern Geographic Science Center. He has worked at the Chesapeake Bay Program Office since 2002, where he leads the Land Data Team that conducts research on land change characterization, analysis, and modeling in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed.
      Duration: 00:04:04
      2013-03-19

      NASA | First Sightings of How a CME Forms
      On July 18, 2012, a fairly small explosion of light burst off the lower right limb of the sun. Such flares often come with an associated eruption of solar material, known as a coronal mass ejection or CME — but this one did not. Something interesting did happen, however. Magnetic field lines in this area of the sun's atmosphere, the corona, began to twist and kink, generating the hottest solar material — a charged gas called plasma — to trace out the newly-formed slinky shape. The plasma glowed brightly in extreme ultraviolet images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and scientists were able to watch for the first time the very formation of something they had long theorized was at the heart of many eruptive events on the sun: a flux rope. Eight hours later, on July 19, the same region flared again. This time the flux rope's connection to the sun was severed, and the magnetic fields escaped into space, dragging billions of tons of solar material along for the ride -- a classic CME. More than just gorgeous to see, such direct observation offers one case study on how this crucial kernel at the heart of a CME forms. Such flux ropes have been seen in images of CMEs as they fly away from the sun, but it's never been known — indeed, has been strongly debated — whether the flux rope formed before or in conjunction with a CME's launch. This case shows a clear-cut example of the flux rope forming ahead of time.
      Duration: 00:03:05
      2013-03-19

      NASA | Continuing Landsat's 40-Year Legacy
      The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a collaboration between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey that will continue the Landsat Program's 40-year data record of monitoring Earth's landscapes from space. LDCM will expand and improve on that record with observations that advance a wide range of Earth sciences and contribute to the management of agriculture, water and forest resources. The Landsat Program is a series of Earth-observing satellite missions jointly managed by NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey. The first Landsat satellite launched in 1972 and the next satellite in the series, the Landsat Data Continuity Mission — LDCM, is scheduled to launch on February 11, 2013
      Duration: 00:05:05
      2013-03-18

      NASA | TDRS: Continuing The Fleet
      NASA is preparing to launch the first in a series of three third generation advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellites, known as TDRS-K. This latest addition to the fleet of seven will augment a space communications network that provides the critical path for high data-rate communication to the International Space Station, Hubble Space Telescope, past shuttle missions and a host of other spacecraft.
      Duration: 00:02:04
      2013-03-18

      NASA | RRM: The Main Event
      The prospect of robots in space tantalizes NASA engineers with extraordinary possibility. Powerful and sophisticated, these tools may be able to extend the working lives of aging spacecraft, something that would profoundly change the way we manage expensive flight hardware. The Robotic Refueling Mission tests this proposition with a battery of demonstrations, culminating in the marquee event. in this video we take a look at the progress made through the mission leading up to the final stage.
      Duration: 00:01:08
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Mona Lisa on the Moon
      As part of the first demonstration of laser communication with a satellite at the moon, scientists with NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) beamed an image of the Mona Lisa to the spacecraft from Earth. The iconic image traveled nearly 240,000 miles in digital form from the Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging (NGSLR) Station at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD, to the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument on the spacecraft. By transmitting the image piggyback on laser pulses that are routinely sent to track LOLA's position, the team achieved simultaneous laser communication and tracking.
      Duration: 00:01:07
      2013-03-18

      NASA | RRM Day One: Captured!
      Day One of the Robotic Refueling Mission comes to a successful close. NASA engineers at the Goddard Space Flight Center and the Johnson Space Center put a robot to work outside the International Space Station, and successfully complete initial mission goals for the day.
      Duration: 00:01:07
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Landsat Senses a Disturbance in the Forest
      This visualization shows a sequence of Landsat-based data in the Pacific Northwest. There is one data set for each year representing an aggregate of the approximate peak of the growing season (around August). The data was created using a sophisticated algorithm called LandTrendr. LandTrendr analyzes 'stacks' of Landsat scenes, looking for statistical trends in the data and filtering out noise. The algorithm evaluated data from more than 1,800 Landsat Thematic Mapper images, nearly 1 Terabyte of raw imagery, to define the life histories of each of more than 336 million pixels on the landscape. The resulting trends identify periods of stability and change that are displayed as colors. In these false color images, the colors represent types of land; for example, blue areas are forests; orange/yellow areas are agriculture; and, purple areas are urban. Each 'stack' is representative of a Landsat scene. There are 22 stacks stitched together to cover most of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. This processed data is used for science, natural resource management, and education. The visualization zooms into the Portland area showing different types of land such as agricultural, urban, and forests. We move south to a region that was evergreen forest for a number of years (blue), then was clear cut in 1999 (orange), then began to regrow (yellow). A graph shows the trajectories for a particular location in the clearcut as the years repeat. The dots represent the original data from Landsat; and, the line represents LandTrendr analysis. We move over to the Three Sisters region to show an area of pine forest that becomes infested with bark beetles in 2004. Next, we move to the southern foothills of Mount Hood where a budworm infestation is in progress; around 1991, the worms move on to another area and shrubs start to regrow. Next we move to the east side of Mount Rainier National Park to see another budworm outbreak followed by shrub regrowth. Finally, we move to the west of Mount Rainier where we can see widespread clear cutting outside of the park, but no clear cutting inside the protected park land.
      Duration: 00:03:07
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Space Station Robots Test Techniques of the Future
      Robots present certain advantages when working in the harsh environment of space. They're not susceptible to hunger, to sleepiness, or catastrophic injury for starters. They're also capable of highly precise, yet highly tedious tasks-- tasks that might otherwise consume huge resources and attention from already busy astronauts and ground controllers. In an important demonstration of new technical methodologies, NASA engineers will try to simulate the transfer of fuel from one vehicle to another, in space, with nothing but robots doing the physical work. Called the Robotic Refueling Mission, it's a major step on the road to developing a robust suite of essential robotic capabilities in space.
      Duration: 00:03:04
      2013-03-18

      NASA | TDRS: Communicating Critical Data
      As a vital information pipeline for space-based research and exploration ambitions, the TDRS constellation fulfills NASA's broadest communication demands. Now into it's fourth operational decade, the TDRS legacy continue's to be communications excellence. The addition of the third generation of spacecraft will replenish the constellation and ensure that the critical lifeline of space-to-ground communication support will be available for many years to come. Before TDRS, NASA relied on a web of ground-based tracking and communication stations located around the globe. These ground stations used large antennas to receive early transmissions from space.
      Duration: 00:04:02
      2013-03-18

      NASA | GPM Enters Thermal Vacuum Chamber
      Short musical interlude showing the lifting of the GPM Core satellite into the Space Environmental Simulator for testing.
      Duration: 00:01:04
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Fermi Finds Radio Bursts from Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes
      Thanks to improved data analysis techniques and a new operating mode, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) aboard NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is now 10 times better at catching the brief outbursts of high-energy light mysteriously produced above thunderstorms. The outbursts, known as terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs), last only a few thousandths of a second, but their gamma rays rank among the highest-energy light that naturally occurs on Earth. The enhanced GBM discovery rate helped scientists show most TGFs also generate a strong burst of radio waves, a finding that will change how scientists study this poorly understood phenomenon. Lightning emits a broad range of very low frequency (VLF) radio waves, often heard as pop-and-crackle static when listening to AM radio. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), a research collaboration operated by the University of Washington in Seattle, routinely detects these radio signals and uses them to pinpoint the location of lightning discharges anywhere on the globe to within about 12 miles (20 km). Scientists have known for a long time TGFs were linked to strong VLF bursts, but they interpreted these signals as originating from lightning strokes somehow associated with the gamma-ray emission. "Instead, we've found when a strong radio burst occurs almost simultaneously with a TGF, the radio emission is coming from the TGF itself," said co-author Michael Briggs, a member of the GBM team. The researchers identified much weaker radio bursts that occur up to several thousandths of a second before or after a TGF. They interpret these signals as intracloud lightning strokes related to, but not created by, the gamma-ray flash. Scientists suspect TGFs arise from the strong electric fields near the tops of thunderstorms. Under certain conditions, the field becomes strong enough that it drives a high-speed upward avalanche of electrons, which give off gamma rays when they are deflected by air molecules. "What's new here is that the same electron avalanche likely responsible for the gamma-ray emission also produces the VLF radio bursts, and this gives us a new window into understanding this phenomenon," said Joseph Dwyer, a physics professor at the Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne, Fla., and a member of the study team. Because the WWLLN radio positions are far more precise than those based on Fermi's orbit, scientists will develop a much clearer picture of where TGFs occur and perhaps which types of thunderstorms tend to produce them.
      Duration: 00:03:07
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Why are We Seeing So Many Sungrazing Comets?
      Before 1979, there were less than a dozen known sungrazing comets. As of December 2012, we know of 2,500. Why did this number increase? With solar observatories like SOHO, STEREO, and SDO, we have not only better means of viewing the sun, but also the comets that approach it. SOHO allows us to see smaller, fainter comets closer to the sun than we have ever been able to see before. Even though many of these comets do not survive their journey past the sun, they survive long enough to be observed, and be added to our record of sungrazing comets.
      Duration: 00:02:06
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Earth at Night
      In daylight our big blue marble is all land, oceans and clouds. But the night - is electric. This view of Earth at night is a cloud-free view from space as acquired by the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite (Suomi NPP). A joint program by NASA and NOAA, Suomi NPP captured this nighttime image by the satellite's Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The day-night band on VIIRS detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near infrared and uses filtering techniques to observe signals such as city lights, gas flares, and wildfires. This new image is a composite of data acquired over nine days in April and thirteen days in October 2012. It took 312 satellite orbits and 2.5 terabytes of data to get a clear shot of every parcel of land surface. This video uses the Earth at night view created by NASA's Earth Observatory with data processed by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center and combined with a version of the Earth Observatory's Blue Marble: Next Generation.
      Duration: 00:02:02
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Death-Defying Comets Explore the Sun's Atmosphere
      To observe how winds move high in Earth's atmosphere, scientists sometimes release clouds of barium as tracers to track how the material corkscrews and sweeps around — but scientists have no similar technique to study the turbulent atmosphere of the sun. So researchers were excited in December 2011, when Comet Lovejoy swept right through the sun's corona with its long tail streaming behind it. NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured images of the comet, showing how its long tail was buffeted by systems around the sun, offering scientists a unique way of observing movement as if they'd orchestrated the experiment themselves. Since comet tails have ionized gases, they are also affected by the sun's magnetic field, and can act as tracers of the complex magnetic system higher up in the atmosphere. Comets can also aid in the study of coronal mass ejections and the solar wind.
      Duration: 00:03:06
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Curiosity Rover Shakes, Bakes, and Tastes Mars with SAM
      NASA's Curiosity rover analyzed its first solid sample of Mars with a variety of instruments, including the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. Developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., SAM is a portable chemistry lab tucked inside the Curiosity rover. SAM examines the chemistry of samples it ingests, checking particularly for chemistry relevant to whether an environment can support or could have supported life. Learn more about how SAM processes samples by watching this video!
      Duration: 00:02:03
      2013-03-18

      NASA | TRMM at 15: The Reign of Rain
      When it rains it pours, goes the saying, and for the last 15 years, the data on tropical rainfall have poured in. NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was launched on Nov. 27, 1997, and for the last decade and a half has enabled precipitation science that has had far reaching applications across the globe. Rain is one of the most important natural processes on Earth, and nowhere does it rain more than across the tropics. Orbiting at an angle to the equator that covers 35 degrees north to 35 degrees south of the equator, TRMM carries five instruments that collectively measure the intensity of rainfall, characteristics of the water vapor and clouds, and lightning associated with the rain events. One of the instruments, the Precipitation Radar, built by NASA's mission partner the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), is the first precipitation radar flown in space. It returns images of storms that for the first time have revealed close up three-dimensional views of how rainbands in tropical cyclones develop, potentially indicating how strong the storms might become.
      Duration: 00:03:03
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Fermi Explores the Early Universe
      Astronomers using data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have made the most accurate measurement of starlight in the universe and used it to establish the total amount of light from all of the stars that have ever shone, accomplishing a primary mission goal. Gamma rays are the most energetic form of light. Since Fermi's launch in 2008, its Large Area Telescope (LAT) observes the entire sky in high-energy gamma rays every three hours, creating the most detailed map of the universe ever known at these energies. The total sum of starlight in the cosmos is known to astronomers as the extragalactic background light (EBL). To gamma rays, the EBL functions as a kind of cosmic fog. Ajello and his team investigated the EBL by studying gamma rays from 150 blazars, or galaxies powered by black holes, that were strongly detected at energies greater than 3 billion electron volts (GeV), or more than a billion times the energy of visible light. As matter falls toward a galaxy's supermassive black hole, some of it is accelerated outward at almost the speed of light in jets pointed in opposite directions. When one of the jets happens to be aimed in the direction of Earth, the galaxy appears especially bright and is classified as a blazar. Gamma rays produced in blazar jets travel across billions of light-years to Earth. During their journey, the gamma rays pass through an increasing fog of visible and ultraviolet light emitted by stars that formed throughout the history of the universe. Occasionally, a gamma ray collides with starlight and transforms into a pair of particles -- an electron and its antimatter counterpart, a positron. Once this occurs, the gamma ray light is lost. In effect, the process dampens the gamma-ray signal in much the same way as fog dims a distant lighthouse. From studies of nearby blazars, scientists have determined how many gamma rays should be emitted at different energies. More distant blazars show fewer gamma rays at higher energies -- especially above 25 GeV -- thanks to absorption by the cosmic fog. The farthest blazars are missing most of their higher-energy gamma rays. The researchers then determined the average gamma-ray attenuation across three distance ranges between 9.6 billion years ago and today. From this measurement, the scientists were able to estimate the fog's thickness. To account for the observations, the average stellar density in the cosmos is about 1.4 stars per 100 billion cubic light-years. To put this in another way, the average distance between stars in the universe is about 4,150 light-years.
      Duration: 00:01:08
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Planetary CSI: Crater Science Investigations
      If you want to learn more about the history of Earth and other rocky planets in the solar system, craters are a great place to look. Now, thanks to LRO's LROC instrument, we can take a much closer look at Linn? Crater on the moon--a pristine crater that's great to use to compare with other craters!
      Duration: 00:02:05
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Zombie Fomalhaut b: Study of Hubble Data Revives a 'Dead' Exoplanet
      A second look at data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is reanimating the claim that the nearby star Fomalhaut hosts a massive exoplanet. The study suggests that the planet, named Fomalhaut b, is a rare and possibly unique object that is completely shrouded by dust. Fomalhaut is the brightest star in the constellation Piscis Austrinus and lies 25 light-years away. In November 2008, Hubble astronomers announced the exoplanet, named Fomalhaut b, as the first one ever directly imaged in visible light around another star. The object was imaged just inside a vast ring of debris surrounding but offset from the host star. The planet's location and mass -- about three times Jupiter's -- seemed just right for its gravity to explain the ring's appearance. Recent studies have claimed that this planetary interpretation is incorrect. Based on the object's apparent motion and the lack of an infrared detection by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, they argue that the object is a short-lived dust cloud unrelated to any planet. A new analysis, however, brings the planet conclusion back to life.
      Duration: 00:02:01
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Saturn's Record-Setting Storm
      Saturn's 2010 Great White Spot storm has set a new record for the largest temperature change ever detected on the ringed planet. By studying the monstrous disturbance using NASA's Cassini spacecraft, researchers spotted a massive belch of energy that sent temperatures soaring to an unprecedented 150 degrees Fahrenheit above normal in Saturn's stratosphere, accompanied by an enormous release of ethylene gas.
      Duration: 00:02:03
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Atomic Interferometry
      Einstein predicted gravity waves in his general theory of relativity, but to date these ripples in the fabric of space-time have never been observed. Now a scientific research technique called Atomic Interferometry is trying to re-write the canon. In conjunction with researchers at Stanford University, scientists at NASA Goddard are developing a system to measure the faint gravitational vibrations generated by movement of massive objects in the universe. The scientific payoff could be important, helping better clarify key issues in our understanding of cosmology. But application payoff could be substantial, too, with the potential to develop profound advances in fields like geolocation and timekeeping. In this video we examine how the system would work, and the scientific underpinnings of the research effort.
      Duration: 00:02:05
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Astronomers Uncover a Surprising Trend in Galaxy Evolution
      A comprehensive study of hundreds of galaxies observed by the Keck telescopes in Hawaii and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has revealed an unexpected pattern of change that extends back 8 billion years, or more than half the age of the universe. "Astronomers thought disk galaxies in the nearby universe had settled into their present form by about 8 billion years ago, with little additional development since," said Susan Kassin, an astronomer at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., and the study's lead researcher. "The trend we've observed instead shows the opposite, that galaxies were steadily changing over this time period." Today, star-forming galaxies take the form of orderly disk-shaped systems, such as the Andromeda Galaxy or the Milky Way, where rotation dominates over other internal motions. The most distant blue galaxies in the study tend to be very different, exhibiting disorganized motions in multiple directions. There is a steady shift toward greater organization to the present time as the disorganized motions dissipate and rotation speeds increase. These galaxies are gradually settling into well-behaved disks. Blue galaxies -- their color indicates stars are forming within them -- show less disorganized motions and ever-faster rotation speeds the closer they are observed to the present. This trend holds true for galaxies of all masses, but the most massive systems always show the highest level of organization. Researchers say the distant blue galaxies they studied are gradually transforming into rotating disk galaxies like our own Milky Way.
      Duration: 00:03:03
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Petermann Ice Island 2012
      In the spring and summer of 2012, land- and sea ice thinned in some regions within the Arctic Circle and completely disappeared in others. Satellites watched as a hurricane-force storm hovered over the North Pole, the Northwest Passage was full of open water, and Greenland's Petermann Glacier dropped another city-sized ice cube into the sea. The Arctic Ocean witnessed its lowest area of sea ice since satellite records began in 1979, and nearly the entire surface of Greenland was melting simultaneously for a weekend in July. Some of the phenomena were familiar and natural, if a bit more extreme. Other events lined up with scientists' ideas about how Arctic weather and climate are changing because of warmer ocean and air temperatures and lower albedo (sunlight reflectance).
      Duration: 00:01:03
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Gradient Sun
      Watching a particularly beautiful movie of the sun helps show how the lines between science and art can sometimes blur. But there is more to the connection between the two disciplines: science and art techniques are often quite similar, indeed one may inform the other or be improved based on lessons from the other arena. One such case is a technique known as a "gradient filter" — recognizable to many people as an option available on a photo-editing program. Gradients are, in fact, a mathematical description that highlights the places of greatest physical change in space. A gradient filter, in turn, enhances places of contrast, making them all the more obviously different, a useful tool when adjusting photos. Scientists, too, use gradient filters to enhance contrast, using them to accentuate fine structures that might otherwise be lost in the background noise. On the sun, for example, scientists wish to study a phenomenon known as coronal loops, which are giant arcs of solar material constrained to travel along that particular path by the magnetic fields in the sun's atmosphere. Observations of the loops, which can be more or less tangled and complex during different phases of the sun's 11-year activity cycle, can help researchers understand what's happening with the sun's complex magnetic fields, fields that can also power great eruptions on the sun such as solar flares or coronal mass ejections. The images here show an unfiltered image from the sun next to one that has been processed using a gradient filter. Note how the coronal loops are sharp and defined, making them all the more easy to study. On the other hand, gradients also make great art. Watch the movie to see how the sharp loops on the sun next to the more fuzzy areas in the lower solar atmosphere provide a dazzling show.
      Duration: 00:02:05
      2013-03-18

      NASA | X-ray Satellites Monitor the Clashing Winds of a Colossal Binary
      One of the nearest and richest OB associations in our galaxy is Cygnus OB2, which is located about 4,700 light-years away and hosts some 3,000 hot stars, including about 100 in the O class. Weighing in at more than a dozen times the sun's mass and sporting surface temperatures five to ten times hotter, these ginormous blue-white stars blast their surroundings with intense ultraviolet light and powerful outflows called stellar winds. Two of these stars can be found in the intriguing binary system known as Cygnus OB2 #9. In 2011, NASA's Swift satellite, the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton observatory and several ground-based facilities took part in a campaign to monitor the system as the giant stars raced toward their closest approach. The observations are giving astronomers a more detailed picture of the stars, their orbits and the interaction of their stellar winds. An O-type star is so luminous that the pressure of its starlight actually drives material from its surface, creating particle outflows with speeds of several million miles an hour. Put two of these humongous stars in the same system and their winds can collide during all or part of the orbit, creating both radio emission and X-rays. In 2008, research showed that Cygnus OB2 #9 emitted radio signals that varied every 2.355 years. In parallel, Yael Naz
      Duration: 00:02:05
      2013-03-18

      NASA | X-ray Nova Reveals a New Black Hole in Our Galaxy
      On Sept. 16, NASA's Swift satellite detected a rising tide of high-energy X-rays from a source toward the center of our Milky Way galaxy. The outburst, produced by a rare X-ray nova, announced the presence of a previously unknown stellar-mass black hole. An X-ray nova is a short-lived X-ray source that appears suddenly, reaches its emission peak in a few days and then fades out over a period of months. The outburst arises when a torrent of stored gas suddenly rushes toward one of the most compact objects known, either a neutron star or a black hole. Named Swift J1745-26 after the coordinates of its sky position, the nova is located a few degrees from the center of our galaxy toward the constellation Sagittarius. While astronomers do not know its precise distance, they think the object resides about 20,000 to 30,000 light-years away in the galaxy's inner region. The pattern of X-rays from the nova signals that the central object is a black hole. Ground-based observatories detected infrared and radio emissions, but thick clouds of obscuring dust have prevented astronomers from catching Swift J1745-26 in visible light. The black hole must be a member of a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) system, which includes a normal, sun-like star. A stream of gas flows from the normal star and enters into a storage disk around the black hole. In most LMXBs, the gas in the disk spirals inward, heats up as it heads toward the black hole, and produces a steady stream of X-rays. But under certain conditions, stable flow within the disk depends on the rate of matter flowing into it from the companion star. At certain rates, the disk fails to maintain a steady internal flow and instead flips between two dramatically different conditions -- a cooler, less ionized state where gas simply collects in the outer portion of the disk like water behind a dam, and a hotter, more ionized state that sends a tidal wave of gas surging toward the center. This phenomenon, called the thermal-viscous limit cycle, helps astronomers explain transient outbursts across a wide range of systems, from protoplanetary disks around young stars, to dwarf novae - where the central object is a white dwarf star - and even bright emission from supermassive black holes in the hearts of distant galaxies.
      Duration: 00:02:03
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Simulations Uncover 'Flashy' Secrets of Merging Black Holes
      According to Einstein, whenever massive objects interact, they produce gravitational waves -- distortions in the very fabric of space and time -- that ripple outward across the universe at the speed of light. While astronomers have found indirect evidence of these disturbances, the waves have so far eluded direct detection. Ground-based observatories designed to find them are on the verge of achieving greater sensitivities, and many scientists think that this discovery is just a few years away. Catching gravitational waves from some of the strongest sources -- colliding black holes with millions of times the sun's mass -- will take a little longer. These waves undulate so slowly that they won't be detectable by ground-based facilities. Instead, scientists will need much larger space-based instruments, such as the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, which was endorsed as a high-priority future project by the astronomical community. A team that includes astrophysicists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., is looking forward to that day by using computational models to explore the mergers of supersized black holes. Their most recent work investigates what kind of "flash" might be seen by telescopes when astronomers ultimately find gravitational signals from such an event. To explore the problem, a team led by Bruno Giacomazzo at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and including Baker developed computer simulations that for the first time show what happens in the magnetized gas (also called a plasma) in the last stages of a black hole merger. In the turbulent environment near the merging black holes, the magnetic field intensifies as it becomes twisted and compressed. The team suggests that running the simulation for additional orbits would result in even greater amplification. The most interesting outcome of the magnetic simulation is the development of a funnel-like structure -- a cleared-out zone that extends up out of the accretion disk near the merged black hole. The most important aspect of the study is the brightness of the merger's flash. The team finds that the magnetic model produces beamed emission that is some 10,000 times brighter than those seen in previous studies, which took the simplifying step of ignoring plasma effects in the merging disks.
      Duration: 00:01:06
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Landsat: Making a Difference, One User At A Time
      The Landsat Data Continuity Mission will continue the legacy of the 40-year Landsat program. This video examines two uses of Landsat data to monitor agriculture. Both wineries and timber companies rely on Landsat data to check whether their crops are getting enough (or too much) water and fertilizer.
      Duration: 00:03:07
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Laser Comm: That's a Bright Idea
      Laser light made records obsolete. NASA is on the verge of doing the same thing with space based communications. Before the end of the decade, the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD) mission will revolutionize the way we move tons of data from orbit to ground and all around the solar system.
      Duration: 00:02:07
      2013-03-18

      NASA | MAVEN: Mars Atmospheric Loss
      When you take a look at Mars, you probably wouldn't think that it looks like a nice place to live. It's dry, it's dusty, and there's practically no atmosphere. But some scientists think that Mars may have once looked like a much nicer place to live, with a thicker atmosphere, cloudy skies, and possibly even liquid water flowing over the surface. So how do you go from something like this--to something like this? NASA's MAVEN spacecraft will give us a clearer idea of how Mars lost its atmosphere, and scientists think that several processes have had an impact.
      Duration: 00:02:00
      2013-03-18

      NASA | The Radiation Belt Storm Probe
      The Van Allen Probes (formerly the Radiation Belt Storm Probes, RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charged particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and astronauts. Project Scientist Dr. David Sibeck explains the how the mission will explore space weather -- changes in Earth's space environment caused by the sun -- that can disable satellites, create power grid failures and disrupt GPS service. The mission also will allow researchers to understand fundamental radiation and particle acceleration processes throughout the universe. The 2-year mission launched Thursday, Aug. 23 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The twin probes lifted off on a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket.
      Duration: 00:03:26
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Van Gogh Sun
      A crucial, and often underappreciated, facet of science lies in deciding how to turn the raw numbers of data into useful, understandable information — often through graphs and images. Such visualization techniques are needed for everything from making a map of planetary orbits based on nightly measurements of where they are in the sky to colorizing normally invisible light such as X-rays to produce "images" of the sun. More information, of course, requires more complex visualizations and occasionally such images are not just informative, but beautiful too. Such is the case with a new technique created by Nicholeen Viall, a solar scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. She creates images of the sun reminiscent of Van Gogh, with broad strokes of bright color splashed across a yellow background. But it's science, not art. The color of each pixel contains a wealth of information about the 12-hour history of cooling and heating at that particular spot on the sun. That heat history holds clues to the mechanisms that drive the temperature and movements of the sun's atmosphere, or corona. To look at the corona from a fresh perspective, Viall created a new kind of picture, making use of the high resolution provided by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). SDO's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) provides images of the sun in 10 different wavelengths, each approximately corresponding to a single temperature of material. Therefore, when one looks at the wavelength of 171 Angstroms, for example, one sees all the material in the sun's atmosphere that is a million degrees Kelvin. By looking at an area of the sun in different wavelengths, one can get a sense of how different swaths of material change temperature. If an area seems bright in a wavelength that shows a hotter temperature an hour before it becomes bright in a wavelength that shows a cooler temperature, one can gather information about how that region has changed over time. Viall's images show a wealth of reds, oranges, and yellow, meaning that over a 12-hour period the material appear to be cooling. Obviously there must have been heating in the process as well, since the corona isn't on a one-way temperature slide down to zero degrees. Any kind of steady heating throughout the corona would have shown up in Viall's images, so she concludes that the heating must be quick and impulsive — so fast that it doesn't show up in her images. This lends credence to those theories that say numerous nanobursts of energy help heat the corona.
      Duration: 00:02:01
      2013-03-18

      NASA | The Mars Chamber
      The Mars chamber is a box--about the size of a refrigerator--that re-creates the temperatures, pressures, and atmosphere of the Martian surface, essentially creating a Mars environment on Earth! Scientists and engineers use this chamber to test experiments on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite--a fully functioning chemistry lab about the Curiosity Mars rover. By re-creating Mars on Earth and using an exact duplicate of SAM, scientists can "pre-run" experiments on SAM to make sure everything will work properly on the Mars rover. Learn more about the Mars chamber by watching this video!
      Duration: 00:01:51
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Exoplanet Atmosphere Blasted by Stellar Flare
      An international team of astronomers using data from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has detected significant changes in the atmosphere of a planet located beyond our solar system. The scientists conclude the atmospheric variations occurred in response to a powerful eruption on the planet's host star, an event observed by NASA's Swift satellite. The exoplanet is HD 189733b, a gas giant similar to Jupiter, but about 14 percent larger and more massive. The planet circles its star at a distance of only 3 million miles, or about 30 times closer than Earth's distance from the sun, and completes an orbit every 2.2 days. Its star, named HD 189733A, is about 80 percent the size and mass of our sun. Astronomers classify the planet as a "hot Jupiter." Previous Hubble observations show that the planet's deep atmosphere reaches a temperature of about 1,900 degrees Fahrenheit (1,030 C). HD 189733b periodically passes across, or transits, its parent star, and these events give astronomers an opportunity to probe its atmosphere and environment. In a previous study, a group led by Lecavelier des Etangs used Hubble to show that hydrogen gas was escaping from the planet's upper atmosphere. The finding made HD 189733b only the second-known "evaporating" exoplanet at the time. The system is just 63 light-years away, so close that its star can be seen with binoculars near the famous Dumbbell Nebula. This makes HD 189733b an ideal target for studying the processes that drive atmospheric escape. When HD 189733b transits its star, some of the star's light passes through the planet's atmosphere. This interaction imprints information on the composition and motion of the planet's atmosphere into the star's light. In April 2010, the researchers observed a single transit using Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), but they detected no trace of the planet's atmosphere. Follow-up STIS observations in September 2011 showed a surprising reversal, with striking evidence that a plume of gas was streaming away from the exoplanet. The researchers determined that at least 1,000 tons of gas was leaving the planet's atmosphere every second. The hydrogen atoms were racing away at speeds greater than 300,000 mph. Because X-rays and extreme ultraviolet starlight heat the planet's atmosphere and likely drive its escape, the team also monitored the star with Swift's X-ray Telescope (XRT). On Sept. 7, 2011, just eight hours before Hubble was scheduled to observe the transit, Swift was monitoring the star when it unleashed a powerful flare. It brightened by 3.6 times in X-rays, a spike occurring atop emission levels that already were greater than the sun's. Astronomers estimate that HD 189733b encountered about 3 million times as many X-rays as Earth receives from a solar flare at the threshold of the X class.
      Duration: 00:02:28
      2013-03-18

      NASA | Dynamic Earth
      A giant explosion of magnetic energy from the sun, called a coronal mass ejection, slams into and is deflected completely by the Earth's powerful magnetic field. The sun also continually sends out streams of light and radiation energy. Earth's atmosphere acts like a radiation shield, blocking quite a bit of this energy. Much of the radiation energy that makes it through is reflected back into space by clouds, ice and snow and the energy that remains helps to drive the Earth system, powering a remarkable planetary engine — the climate. It becomes the energy that feeds swirling wind and ocean currents as cold air and surface waters move toward the equator and warm air and water moves toward the poles — all in an attempt to equalize temperatures around the world.
      Duration: 00:04:27
      2013-03-18

      NASA | LRO Brings "Earthrise" to Everyone
      On December 24, 1968, Apollo 8 Commander Frank Borman and crew members William A. Anders and James A. Lovell, Jr. became the first humans to photograph the Earth rising over the moon. Now, the rest of us can see what it was like in a new NASA visualization that draws on richly detailed maps of the moon's surface made from data gathered by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter! The narration in this visualization comes from the original audio recording of the Apollo 8 astronauts. The flight time has been compressed for effect. The Earth in this visualization is not an exact duplication of what the astronauts saw but a mosaic of more recent images taken by Earth-observing satellites. Representative clouds were then layered on top of the mosaic.
      Duration: 00:00:55
      2013-03-18

      NASA | A Young Star Flaunts its X-ray Spots
      Using combined data from a trio of orbiting X-ray telescopes, including NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Japan-led Suzaku satellite, astronomers have obtained a rare glimpse of the powerful phenomena that accompany a still-forming star. A new study based on these observations indicates that intense magnetic fields drive torrents of gas into the stellar surface, where they heat large areas to millions of degrees. X-rays emitted by these hot spots betray the newborn star's rapid rotation.
      Duration: 00:01:30
      2012-07-16

      NASA | Using Quasars to Measure the Earth: A Brief History of VLBI
      VLBI, or Very Long Baseline Interferometry, is a technique that uses multiple radio telescopes to very precisely measure the Earth's orientation. It was originally invented back in the 1960s to take better pictures of quasars, but scientists soon found out that if you threw the process in reverse, you could measure how the ground beneath the telescopes moves around, how long days really are, and how the Earth wobbles on its axis as it revolves around the sun! Learn more about VLBI here!
      Duration: 00:01:54
      2012-06-27

      NASA | Five Teachers, 500 Meters Above Greenland
      This year five teachers were invited on board NASA's P-3B aircraft to fly at 500 meters above the glaciers of Greenland with Operation IceBridge, a six-year mission to study Arctic and Antarctic ice. Two teachers from Greenland, two from Denmark, and one from the United States were given the opportunity to see polar research first hand, and then take that experience back to their classrooms.
      Duration: 00:04:36
      2012-06-13

      NASA | Suomi Sees Asian Fires Migrate To North America
      In this short video, research scientist Colin Seftor talks about images from the OMPS instrument on the Suomi NPP satellite. Suomi (NPP) launched in the fall of 2011. These images show smoke from Asia that migrates to North America. Seftor explains the importance of aerosols to the studies of climate as well as how critical it is to collect long term data records.
      Duration: 00:02:30
      2012-06-12

      NASA | Massive Phytoplankton Bloom Discovered Under Arctic Sea Ice
      Scientists have made a biological discovery in Arctic Ocean waters as dramatic and unexpected as finding a rainforest in the middle of a desert. A NASA-sponsored expedition punched through three-foot thick sea ice to find waters richer in microscopic marine plants, essential to all sea life, than any other ocean region on Earth. The discovery is the result of an oceanographic expedition called ICESCAPE, or Impacts of Climate on EcoSystems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment. The NASA-sponsored mission explored the seas along Alaska's western and northern coasts onboard a U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker during the summers of 2010 and 2011. The finding reveals a new consequence of the Arctic's warming climate and provides an important clue to understanding the impacts of a changing climate and environment on the Arctic Ocean and its ecology.
      Duration: 00:02:00
      2012-06-12

      NASA | Tornadoes with Tim Samaras
      The new generation GOES-R satellites will carry significant improvements and technology innovation on board. GOES-R will be able to deliver a full globe scan in only 5 minutes, compared to the 25 minutes needed for the same task with the current GOES satellites. GOES-R's lightning mapper instrument is expected to improve warning lead time for severe storms and tornadoes with up to 50%. This without a doubt will help predict severe weather in advance and save more lives. This reel is a compilation of finished productions about the GOES-R mission as well as supporting materials such as animations, visualizations, and still images. In this video severe storm researcher and engineer Tim Samaras talks about his view on tornadoes and what remains to be understood. He also covers the importance of satellite imagery to his research.
      Duration: 00:03:48
      2012-06-12

      NASA | GPM: The Fresh(water) Connection
      The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide next-generation observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will launch a "Core" satellite carrying advanced instruments that will set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide will be used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. The GPM mission will help advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles, improve the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extend current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society.
      Duration: 00:01:24
      2012-06-12

      NASA | SDO's Ultra-high Definition View of 2012 Venus Transit
      Launched on Feb. 11, 2010, the Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO, is the most advanced spacecraft ever designed to study the sun. During its five-year mission, it will examine the sun's atmosphere, magnetic field and also provide a better understanding of the role the sun plays in Earth's atmospheric chemistry and climate. SDO provides images with resolution 8 times better than high-definition television and returns more than a terabyte of data each day. On June 5 2012, SDO collected images of the rarest predictable solar event--the transit of Venus across the face of the sun. This event lasted approximately 6 hours and happens in pairs eight years apart, which are separated from each other by 105 or 121 years. The last transit was in 2004 and the next will not happen until 2117. The videos and images displayed here are constructed from several wavelengths of extreme ultraviolet light and a portion of the visible spectrum. The red colored sun is the 304 angstrom ultraviolet, the golden colored sun is 171 angstrom, the magenta sun is 1700 angstrom, and the orange sun is filtered visible light. 304 and 171 show the atmosphere of the sun, which does not appear in the visible part of the spectrum.
      Duration: 00:03:06
      2012-06-12

      NASA | SOHO LASCO View of Approaching Venus Transit
      The LASCO C3 coronograph on board the SOHO spacecraft has been watching the approach of Venus for its last solar transit until 2117. With coronagraphs, the Sun is being blocked by an occulting disk, seen here in blue, so that SOHO can observe the much fainter features in the Sun's corona. The actual size of the Sun is represented by the white disk. The transit of Venus begins tomorrow, June 5, at about 6pm Eastern Daylight Time, or about 10pm Universal Time. It will last approximately 6 hours.
      Duration: 00:00:23
      2012-06-04

      NASA | X-ray 'Echoes' Probe Habitat of Monster Black Hole
      Astronomers using data from the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton satellite have found a long-sought X-ray signal from NGC 4151, a galaxy that contains a supermassive black hole. The discovery promises a new way to unravel what's happening in the neighborhood of these powerful objects. Most big galaxies host a big central black hole containing millions of times the sun's mass. When matter streams toward one of these supermassive black holes, the galaxy's center lights up, emitting billions of times more energy than the sun. For years, astronomers have been monitoring such "active galactic nuclei" (AGN) to better understand what happens on the brink of a monster black hole.
      Duration: 00:01:12
      2012-05-31

      NASA | Incandescent Sun
      This video takes SDO images and applies additional processing to enhance the structures visible. While there is no scientific value to this processing, it does result in a beautiful, new way of looking at the sun. The original frames are in the 171 Angstrom wavelength of extreme ultraviolet. This wavelength shows plasma in the solar atmosphere, called the corona, that is around 600,000 Kelvin. The loops represent plasma held in place by magnetic fields. They are concentrated in "active regions" where the magnetic fields are the strongest. These active regions usually appear in visible light as sunspots. The events in this video represent 24 hours of activity on September 25, 2011.
      Duration: 00:02:48
      2012-05-29

      NASA | A Landsat Flyby
      The Landsat program is the longest continuous global record of the Earth's surface, and continues to deliver both visually stunning and scientifically valuable images of our planet. This short video highlights Landsat's many benefits to society.
      Duration: 00:01:42
      2012-05-29

      NASA | TDRS Heart of Communication
      The most recent evaluations of NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) project confirmed all systems go for TDRS-K, a third generation upgrade of the orbiting communications network. TDRS-K is scheduled for launch aboard an Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida during the 2012 holiday season.
      Duration: 00:02:12
      2012-05-29

      NASA | Aqua Podcast Series: Science and Beauty
      Beautiful images from the MODIS instrument on NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites are used by people all over the world every day. But MODIS is about more than just pretty pictures -- the instrument's contributions to science include a better understanding of the Earth's cloud cover, aerosols, phytoplankton levels, and land cover.
      Duration: 00:03:06
      2012-05-25

      NASA | IBEX:Observing the Sun's Horizon
      The Interstellar Boundary Explorer, or IBEX, is the first mission designed to map the entire region of the boundary of our Solar System. As charged particles from the Sun, called the "solar wind," flow outward well beyond the orbits of the planets, they collide with the material between the stars, called the "interstellar medium" (ISM). These interactions create energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), particles with no charge that move very quickly. This region emits no light that can be collected by conventional telescopes so, instead, IBEX measures the particles that happen to be traveling inward from the boundary. IBEX contains two detectors designed to collect and measure ENAs, providing data about the mass, location, direction of origin, and energy of these particles. From these data, maps of the boundary are created. IBEX's sole, focused science objective is to discover the nature of the interactions between the solar wind and the interstellar medium at the edge of our Solar System.
      Duration: 00:02:54
      2012-05-25

      NASA | Fermi Provides New Insights on Dark Matter
      There's more to the cosmos than meets the eye. About 80 percent of the matter in the universe is invisible to telescopes, yet its gravitational influence is manifest in the orbital speeds of stars around galaxies and in the motions of clusters of galaxies. Yet, despite decades of effort, no one knows what this "dark matter" really is. Many scientists think it's likely that the mystery will be solved with the discovery of new kinds of subatomic particles, types necessarily different from those composing atoms of the ordinary matter all around us. The search to detect and identify these particles is underway in experiments both around the globe and above it.
      Duration: 00:03:12
      2012-04-02

      NASA | NASA Jet Stream Study Lights up Night Sky
      In March, NASA will launch five such rockets in approximately five minutes to study these high-altitude winds and their intimate connection to the complicated electrical current patterns that surround Earth. The five sounding rockets, known as the Anomalous Transport Rocket Experiment (ATREX), will launch from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia.
      Duration: 00:02:12
      2012-03-27

      NASA | GPM's Dual Precipitation Radar Arrives at Goddard
      The Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) built by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core Observatory arrived on Friday, March 16 and was unloaded today at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. Comprised of two radars, the DPR is one of two instruments that will fly on the Core Observatory scheduled for launch in February 2014. The GPM mission will provide a new generation of satellite observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours for scientific research and societal benefits. NASA's mission partner JAXA developed the DPR in cooperation with Japan's National Institute of Information and Communications Technology. The instrument will provide 3-D measurements of the shapes and sizes of raindrops and snowflakes and other physical characteristics that will allow scientists to better understand the physical properties of storms.
      Duration: 00:02:12
      2012-03-21

      NASA | NASA Wraps Up Cold Season Campaign for GPM
      For six weeks in Ontario, Canada, scientists and engineers lead a field campaign to study the science and mechanics of falling snow. The datasets retrieved will be used to generate algorithms which translate what the GPM Core satellite "sees" into precipitation rates, including that of falling snow. Ground validation science manager Walt Petersen gives a summary of the GCPEx field campaign. Field campaigns are critical in improving satellite observations and precipitation measurements.
      Duration: 00:03:24
      2012-03-19

      NASA | NASA Spacecraft Reveals Recent Geological Activity on the Moon
      New images acquired by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft show that the moon's crust is being slightly stretched, forming small valleys - at least in some small areas. High-resolution images obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) provide evidence that these valleys are very young, suggesting the moon has experienced relatively recent geologic activity.
      Duration: 00:02:02
      2012-02-23

      NASA | Aqua AIRS: Visions of Weather and Climate
      One of the primary instruments on NASA's Aqua spacecraft is the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which is providing a detailed three-dimensional view of the atmosphere. This new view is helping scientists to better understand the climate system and is proving of great value also in several practical applications, including weather forecasting.
      Duration: 00:05:00
      2012-02-06

      NASA | NASA's IBEX Spacecraft Reveals New Observations of Interstellar Matter
      A great magnetic bubble surrounds the solar system as it cruises through the galaxy. The sun pumps the inside of the bubble full of solar particles that stream out to the edge until they collide with the material that fills the rest of the galaxy, at a complex boundary called the heliosheath. On the other side of the boundary, electrically charged particles from the galactic wind blow by, but rebound off the heliosheath, never to enter the solar system. Neutral particles, on the other hand, are a different story. They saunter across the boundary as if it weren't there, continuing on another 7.5 billion miles for 30 years until they get caught by the sun's gravity, and sling shot around the star. There, NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer lies in wait for them. Known as IBEX for short, this spacecraft methodically measures these samples of the mysterious neighborhood beyond our home. IBEX scans the entire sky once a year, and every February, its instruments point in the correct direction to intercept incoming neutral atoms. IBEX counted those atoms in 2009 and 2010 and has now captured the best and most complete glimpse of the material that lies so far outside our own system. The results? It's an alien environment out there: the material in that galactic wind doesn't look like the same stuff our solar system is made of. More than just helping to determine the distribution of elements in the galactic wind, these new measurements give clues about how and where our solar system formed, the forces that physically shape our solar system, and even the history of other stars in the Milky Way. In a series of science papers appearing in the Astrophysics Journal on January 31, 2012, scientists report that for every 20 neon atoms in the galactic wind, there are 74 oxygen atoms. In our own solar system, however, for every 20 neon atoms there are 111 oxygen atoms. That translates to more oxygen in any given slice of the solar system than in the local interstellar space.
      Duration: 00:03:00
      2012-02-02

      NASA | This World Is Black and White
      A look at how the historic DaisyWorld model illustrates earth science concepts, such as albedo and feedback loops. This webshort was produced as an educational tie-in with the Science on a Sphere feature LOOP.
      Duration: 00:03:48
      2012-01-18

      NASA | An Introduction to Aqua
      An introduction to the groundbreaking scientific and practical applications of the Aqua satellte.
      Duration: 00:03:54
      2012-01-18

      NASA | NASA's RXTE Helps Pinpoint Launch of 'Bullets' in a Black Hole's Jet
      Using observations from NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite and the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope, an international team of astronomers has identified the moment when a black hole in our galaxy launched superfast knots of gas into space. Racing outward at about one-quarter the speed of light, these "bullets" of ionized gas are thought to arise from a region located just outside the black hole's event horizon, the point beyond which nothing can escape.
      Duration: 00:00:30
      2012-01-10

      NASA | RXTE Detects 'Heartbeat' Of Smallest Black Hole Candidate
      Data from NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite has identified a candidate for the smallest-known black hole. The evidence comes from a specific type of X-ray pattern -- nicknamed a "heartbeat" because of its resemblance to an electrocardiogram -- that until now has been recorded in only one other black hole system.
      Duration: 00:01:30
      2011-12-15

      NASA | Developing a Comet Harpoon for Sample Return
      The Comet Nucleus Sample Return mission will collect subsurface samples from a comet and return them to Earth. Comets and asteroids are leftover remnants from the early solar system and by studying samples from these objects, we can learn more about the formation of our solar system and may find clues to the origin of life on Earth.
      Duration: 00:03:42
      2011-12-13

      NASA | Lunar Eclipse Essentials
      When the moon passes through the Earth's shadow, it causes the moon to look very unusual for a short period of time. This event is called a lunar eclipse, and it occurs roughly twice a year. Learn more about how lunar eclipses work in this video!
      Duration: 00:01:30
      2011-12-09

      NASA | LRO's Diviner Takes the Moon's Temperature During Eclipse
      During the June 2011 lunar eclipse, scientists will be able to get a unique view of the moon. While the sun is blocked by the Earth, LRO's Diviner instrument will take the temperature on the lunar surface. Since different rock sizes cool at different rates, scientists will be able to infer the size and density of rocks on the moon.
      Duration: 00:01:42
      2011-12-09

      NASA | Ancient Dry Spells Offer Clues About the Future of Drought
      Ancient Meso-American civilizations of the Mayans and Aztecs likely amplified droughts in the Yucatan and southern Mexico by clearing rainforests to make room for pastures and farmland.
      Duration: 00:01:24
      2011-12-05

      NASA | NPP: Making the News
      When it comes to a NASA mission, it is not just about the science and engineering, but it is also important to educate the public about the program. In this video television crews work night and day to make sure that the audience is well informed and up to date on mission events.
      Duration: 00:03:24
      2011-12-01

      NASA | The Dual Personality of the 'Christmas Burst'
      The Christmas burst, also known as GRB 101225A, was discovered in the constellation Andromeda by Swift's Burst Alert Telescope at 1:38 p.m. EST on Dec. 25, 2010. Two very different scenarios successfully reproduce features of this peculiar cosmic explosion. It was either caused by novel type of supernova located billions of light-years away or an unusual collision much closer to home, within our own galaxy. Common to both scenarios is the presence of a neutron star, the crushed core that forms when a star many times the sun's mass explodes. According to one science team, the burst occurred in an exotic binary system where a neutron star orbited a normal star that had just entered its red giant phase. The outer atmosphere of the giant expanded so much that it engulfed the neutron star, which resulted in both the ejection of the giant's atmosphere and rapid tightening of the neutron star's orbit. Once the two stars became wrapped in a common envelope of gas, the neutron star may have merged with the giant's core after just five orbits, or about 18 months. The end result of the merger was the birth of a black hole and the production of oppositely directed jets of particles moving at nearly the speed of light, which made the gamma rays, followed by a weak supernova. Based on this interpretation, the event took place about 5.5 billion light-years away, and the team has detected what may be a faint galaxy at the right location. Another team supports an alternative model that involves the tidal disruption of a large comet-like object and the ensuing crash of debris onto a neutron star located only about 10,000 light-years away. Gamma-ray emission occurred when debris fell onto the neutron star. Clumps of cometary material likely made a few orbits, with different clumps following different paths before settling into a disk around the neutron star. X-ray variations detected by Swift's X-Ray Telescope that lasted several hours may have resulted from late-arriving clumps that struck the neutron star as the disk formed.
      Duration: 00:01:42
      2011-12-01

      NASA | Women at Goddard: Meet Alberta Moran
      For someone who learned to drive a Model T car, to someone who saw the space shuttle and saw a man landing on the moon, there's really no words to explain my time at Goddard. Hello, my name's Alberta Moran. I've worked at Goddard for forty plus years, both as an employee and a volunteer.
      Duration: 00:02:30
      2011-11-15

      NASA | Swift Captures Flyby of Asteroid 2005 YU55
      Asteroid 2005 YU55 whisks through the field of view of Swift's Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) on Nov. 9, just hours after the space rock made its closest approach to Earth. The video plays on a background image from the Digital Sky Survey that shows the same region, which lies within the Great Square asterism of the constellation Pegasus (times UT). Credit: NASA/Swift/Stefan Immler and DSS
      Duration: 00:00:53
      2011-11-15

      NASA | The Truth About 2012: Solar Storms
      Should we be concerned about solar storms in 2012? Heliophysicist Alex Young from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center sorts out truth from fiction.
      Duration: 00:02:42
      2011-11-10

      NASA | Fermi Finds a Youthful Pulsar Among Ancient Stars
      In three years, NASA's Fermi has detected more than 100 gamma-ray pulsars, but something new has appeared. Among a type of pulsar with ages typically numbering a billion years or more, Fermi has found one that appears to have been born only millions of years ago. A pulsar is a type of neutron star that emits electromagnetic energy at periodic intervals. A neutron star is the closest thing to a black hole that astronomers can observe directly, crushing half a million times more mass than Earth into a sphere no larger than a city. This matter is so compressed that even a teaspoonful weighs as much as Mount Everest. Millisecond pulsars are thought to achieve such speeds because they are gravitationally bound in binary systems with normal stars. During part of their stellar lives, gas flows from the normal star to the pulsar. Over time, the impact of this falling gas gradually spins up the pulsar's rotation. Be sure to go here (http://www.nasa.gov/externalflash/fermipulsar/) to see a new interactive map of all known pulsars.
      Duration: 00:03:20
      2011-11-03

      NASA | TIRS TVAC1 Opening the Vacuum Chamber
      The Thermal InfraRed Sensor (TIRS) is part of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) to continue thermal imaging and to support emerging applications such as evapotranspiration rate measurements for water management. TIRS is being built by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and has a three-year design life. TIRS completed its first round of thermal vacuum testing on Tuesday, October 4, marking the first time engineers evaluated the fully-assembled instrument at its normal operating temperature. When operational, TIRS is only 43 Kelvin (-382 degrees Fahrenheit). Such a cold temperature is necessary so the instrument itself does not overwhelm the heat radiated by Earth. The Landsat Program is a series of Earth observing satellite missions jointly managed by NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey. Landsat satellites have been consistently gathering data about our planet since 1972. They continue to improve and expand this unparalleled record of Earth's changing landscapes for the benefit of all.
      Duration: 00:05:16
      2011-10-31

      NASA | The Solar Cycle
      The number of sunspots increases and decreases over time in a regular, approximately 11-year cycle, called the sunspot cycle. The exact length of the cycle can vary. It has been as short as eight years and as long as fourteen, but the number of sunspots always increases over time, and then returns to low again.
      Duration: 00:03:26
      2011-10-27

      NASA | On Board NPP: 5 Instruments
      The NPP satellite has 5 instruments on board: VIIRS, CERES, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS. Each one will deliver a specific set of data helping weather prediction and climate studies. This video is a quick overview of each instrument and its placement on the spacecraft done at the Ball Aerospace clean room by the NPP Systems Engineer Rob Baltrum.
      Duration: 00:02:30
      2011-10-27

      NASA | Meanwhile at the Bottom of the Ocean
      The Ben Franklin mission has been forgotten by time, overshadowed by the concurrent Apollo 11 mission. However, the scientific findings obtained by the six aquanauts has provided a foundation for understanding the Gulf Stream and ocean currents. This webshort was produced as an educational tie-in with the Science on a Sphere feature LOOP.
      Duration: 00:04:00
      2011-10-24

      NASA | On Board NPP: Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite
      This video talks about the importance of the Ozone Mapper Profiler Suite (OMPS), flying on board NPP. OMPS is critical for measuring the health of the stratospheric ozone.
      Duration: 00:03:36
      2011-10-20

      NASA | Spiral Arms Point to Possible Planets in a Star's Dusty Disk
      A new image of the disk of gas and dust around a sun-like star is the first to show spiral-arm-like structures. These features may provide clues to the presence of embedded but as-yet-unseen planets. The newly imaged disk surrounds SAO 206462, an 8.7-magnitude star located about 456 light-years away in the constellation Lupus. Astronomers estimate that the system is only about 9 million years old. The gas-rich disk spans some 14 billion miles, which is more than twice the size of Pluto's orbit in our own solar system. The Subaru near-infrared image reveals a pair of spiral features arcing along the outer disk. Theoretical models show that a single embedded planet may produce a spiral arm on each side of a disk. The structures around SAO 206462 do not form a matched pair, suggesting the presence of two unseen worlds, one for each arm.
      Duration: 00:01:30
      2011-10-20

      NASA | Operation IceBridge Antarctica 2011 Mission Preview
      In preparation for Operation IceBridge's Antarctica 2011 campaign, flight crews at NASA Dryden worked to outfit the DC-8 aircraft -- NASA's long-haul "workhorse" -- with an array of different instruments designed to measure sea ice, ice sheets, and even the bedrock below Antarctic glaciers.
      Duration: 00:02:00
      2011-10-14

      NASA | Fermi's Latest Gamma-ray Census Highlights Cosmic Mysteries
      Every three hours, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope scans the entire sky and deepens its portrait of the high-energy universe. Every year, the satellite's scientists reanalyze all of the data it has collected, exploiting updated analysis methods to tease out new sources. These relatively steady sources are in addition to the numerous transient events Fermi detects, such as gamma-ray bursts in the distant universe and flares from the sun. Earlier this year, the Fermi team released its second catalog of sources detected by the satellite's Large Area Telescope (LAT), producing an inventory of 1,873 objects shining with the highest-energy form of light. More than half of these sources are active galaxies whose supermassive black hole centers are causing the gamma-ray emissions.
      Duration: 00:02:00
      2011-09-12

      NASA | New LRO Images Offer Sharper Views of Apollo 12, 14, and 17 Sites
      NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has captured the sharpest images ever taken from space of the Apollo 12, 14 and 17 sites, revealing the twists and turns of the paths made when the astronauts explored these areas.
      Duration: 00:05:09
      2011-09-12

      NASA | On Board NPP: VIRS
      NPP is carrying five instruments on board. The biggest and most important instrument is The Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite or VIIRS. This video focuses on VIIRS and why it is so important to Earth's science.
      Duration: 00:03:05
      2011-09-02

      NASA | D-R.A.T.S. 2011
      Desert Research And Technology Studies (D-R.A.T.S) kicks off an exciting new year of field testing. The crew is back in action, testing communication scenarios for near-Earth asteroids, and 2 new instruments from Goddard: ExPED and VAPoR.
      Duration: 00:03:05
      2011-09-01

      NASA | NASA's Swift Satellite Spots Black Hole Devouring A Star
      In late March 2011, NASA's Swift satellite alerted astronomers to intense and unusual high-energy flares from a new source in the constellation Draco. They soon realized that the source, which is now known as Swift J1644+57, was the result of a truly extraordinary event -- the awakening of a distant galaxy's dormant black hole as it shredded and consumed a star. The galaxy is so far away that the radiation from the blast has traveled 3.9 billion years before reaching Earth.
      Duration: 00:00:25
      2011-08-24

      NASA | NASA Spacecraft Track Solar Storms From Sun To Earth
      NASA's STEREO spacecraft and new data processing techniques have succeeded in tracking space weather events from their origin in the Sun's ultrahot corona to impact with the Earth 96 million miles away, resolving a 40-year mystery about the structure of the structures that cause space weather: how the structures that impact the Earth relate to the corresponding structures in the solar corona.
      Duration: 00:03:00
      2011-08-18

      NASA | DNA Building Blocks Can Be Made in Space
      NASA-funded researchers have evidence that some building blocks of DNA, the molecule that carries the genetic instructions for life, found in meteorites were likely created in space. The research gives support to the theory that a "kit" of ready-made parts created in space and delivered to Earth by meteorite and comet impacts assisted the origin of life.
      Duration: 00:02:48
      2011-08-14

      NASA | X-Class: A Guide to Solar Flares
      Flares happen when the powerful magnetic fields in and around the sun reconnect. They're usually associated with active regions, often seen as sun spots, where the magnetic fields are strongest. Flares are classified according to their strength. The smallest ones are B-class, followed by C, M and X, the largest. Similar to the Richter scale for earthquakes, each letter represents a ten-fold increase in energy output. So an X is 10 times an M and 100 times a C. Within each letter class, there is a finer scale from 1 to 9. C-class flares are too weak to noticeably affect Earth. M-class flares can cause brief radio blackouts at the poles and minor radiation storms that might endanger astronauts. Although X is the last letter, there are flares more than 10 times the power of an X1, so X-class flares can go higher than 9. The most powerful flare on record was in 2003, during the last solar maximum. It was so powerful that it overloaded the sensors measuring it. They cut-out at X28. A powerful X-class flare like that can create long lasting radiation storms, which can harm satellites and even give airline passengers, flying near the poles, small radiation doses. X flares also have the potential to create global transmission problems and world-wide blackouts.
      Duration: 00:03:00
      2011-08-09

      NASA | Tohoku Tsunami Creates Antarctic Icebergs
      Nearly 50 square miles of ice broke off the Sulzberger Ice Shelf on the coast of Antarctica, resulting from waves generated by the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan in March 2011.
      Duration: 00:01:36
      2011-08-08

      NASA | Afterschool Universe: Supernova Can Crush
      Afterschool Universe is an out-of-school-time astronomy program for middle school students that explores basic astronomy concepts through engaging hands-on activities and then takes participants on a journey through the Universe beyond the Solar System. This video shows a demonstration of the principle of why a large star collapses at the end of its life. If you are interested in the Afterschool Universe program, visit their website at http://universe.nasa.gov/afterschool You can also go to the Afterschool Universe YouTube channel for more demonstration videos http://www.youtube.com/user/AfterschoolUniverse
      Duration: 00:02:00
      2011-07-26

      NASA | The How-To Guide to Satellites: Putting It Together
      Building satellites isn't easy. They're complex, expensive, and not to mention hard to make! This is why whenever NASA makes a new satellite--like the MAVEN mission to Mars--its scientists and engineers do everything they can to make sure it's done right. Now, putting a satellite together is nothing like putting together, say, an office chair. A single bolt can take hours to install, and you can't even imagine how complex the electronics are. Find out more about the whole process in this video.
      Duration: 00:01:30
      2011-07-25

      NASA | The Hubble Legacy: Galaxy Evolution
      Three astronomers explain how Hubble acts like a time machine by detecting which galaxies are moving toward and away from us.
      Duration: 00:03:36
      2011-07-20

      NASA | Riding on a Sounding Rocket
      On March 23, 2011, two on-board cameras followed a sounding rocket on its journey from Earth to space and back again. The rocket was launched to measure solar energy output and calibrate the EVE instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory.
      Duration: 00:04:05
      2011-07-15

      NASA | Massive Solar Eruption Close-up
      On June 7, 2011 the Sun unleashed an M-2 (medium-sized) solar flare with a spectacular coronal mass ejection (CME). The large cloud of particles mushroomed up and fell back down looking as if it covered an area almost half the solar surface. SDO observed the flare's peak at 1:41 AM ET. SDO recorded these images in extreme ultraviolet light that show a very large eruption of cool gas. It is somewhat unique because at many places in the eruption there seems to be even cooler material -- at temperatures less than 80,000 K. This video uses the full-resolution 4096 x 4096 pixel images at a one minute time cadence to provide the highest quality, finest detail version possible. It is interesting to compare the event in different wavelengths because they each see different temperatures of plasma. See the transcript for more notes on this.
      Duration: 00:02:04
      2011-07-05

      NASA | MicroSpec: Revolutionary Instrument on a Chip
      Scientists may finally get a glimpse at our adolescent universe from a revolutionary new technology being developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. An instrument on a chip. This new, potentially game-changing instrument, called MicroSpec, is a far-infrared spectrometer that will be 10,000 times more sensitive and infinitely smaller than it's predecessor.
      Duration: 00:02:02
      2011-06-30

      NASA | Stellar Odd Couple Makes Striking Flares
      Every 3.4 years, pulsar B1259-63 dives twice through the gas disk surrounding the massive blue star it orbits. With each pass, it produces gamma rays. During the most recent event, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observed that the pulsar's gamma-ray flare was much more intense the second time it plunged through the disk. Astronomers don't yet know why.
      Duration: 00:02:12
      2011-06-30

      NASA | LRO's Diviner Takes the Moon's Temperature
      During the June 2011 lunar eclipse, scientists will be able to get a unique view of the moon. While the sun is blocked by the Earth, LRO's Diviner instrument will take the temperature on the lunar surface. Since different rock sizes cool at different rates, scientists will be able to infer the size and density of rocks on the moon.
      Duration: 00:01:42
      2011-06-13

      NASA | Voyager Finds Magnetic Bubbles at the Edge of the Solar System
      The suns magnetic field spins opposite directions on the north and south poles. These oppositely pointing magnetic fields are separated by a layer of current called the heliospheric current sheet. Due to the tilt of the magnetic axis in relation to the axis of rotation of the Sun, the heliospheric current sheet flaps like a flag in the wind. The flapping current sheet separates regions of oppositely pointing magnetic field, called sectors. As the solar wind speed decreases past the termination shock, the sectors squeeze together, bringing regions of opposite magnetic field closer to each other. The Voyager spacecraft have now found that when the separation of sectors becomes very small, the sectored magnetic field breaks up into a sea of nested magnetic bubbles in a phenomenon called magnetic reconnection. The region of nested bubbles is carried by the solar wind to the north and south filling out the entire front region of the heliopause and the sector region in the heliosheath. This discovery has prompted a complete revision of what the heliosheath region looks like. The smooth, streamlined look is gone, replaced with a bubbly, frothy outer layer.
      Duration: 00:02:45
      2011-06-09

      NASA | Lunar Eclipse Essentials
      When the moon passes through the Earths shadow, it causes the moon to look very unusual for a short period of time. This event is called a lunar eclipse, and it occurs roughly twice a year. There is one viewable to folks outside of North America on June 15, so sit back and learn more about how lunar eclipses work in this video! This video is also available in stereoscopic 3D, viewable by many kinds of 3D devices, including common red/blue paper glasses that you might have lying around! To view this video in 3D, click here: http://youtu.be/F5JRVOw6mes Credit goes to TheWusa from de.wikipedia.org for the illustrations that this videos light scattering animations are based on. This video is public domain and can be downloaded at: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/goto?10787 Like our videos? Subscribe to NASAs Goddard Shorts HD podcast: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/iTunes/f0004_index.html Or find NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on facebook: http://www.facebook.com/NASA.GSFC Or find us on Twitter: http://twitter.com/NASAGoddard
      Duration: 00:01:47
      2011-06-08

      NASA | SDO Catches Surf Waves on the Sun
      Scientists have spotted the iconic surfer's wave rolling through the atmosphere of the sun. This makes for more than just a nice photo-op: the waves hold clues as to how energy moves through that atmosphere, known as the corona. Since scientists know how these kinds of waves -- initiated by a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability if you're being technical -- disperse energy in the water, they can use this information to better understand the corona. This in turn, may help solve an enduring mystery of why the corona is thousands of times hotter than originally expected. Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities occur when two fluids of different densities or different speeds flow by each other. In the case of ocean waves, that's the dense water and the lighter air. As they flow past each other, slight ripples can be quickly amplified into the giant waves loved by surfers. In the case of the solar atmosphere, which is made of a very hot and electrically charged gas called plasma, the two flows come from an expanse of plasma erupting off the sun's surface as it passes by plasma that is not erupting. The difference in flow speeds and densities across this boundary sparks the instability that builds into the waves.
      Duration: 00:03:24
      2011-06-07

      NASA | NPPy: Big Planet, Little Bear
      As we know polar bears are most affected by the warming of our planet and the melting of ice around the poles. That is why it is very important that satellites like NPP constantly monitor the Earth s health from space to help scientists build models and predict how climate is changing over time. In this series of animated videos NPPy the bear walks along with his mom and tells us what he has learned about the NPP mission and it s importance for everyone who lives on planet Earth. Follow NPPy in this and other episodes to come and find out more about his adventures and the NPP mission!
      Duration: 00:05:05
      2011-06-07

      NASA | Swift's 500 Gamma-ray Bursts
      On April 13, 2010, NASA's Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer satellite discovered its 500th burst. Swift's main job is to quickly localize each gamma-ray burst (GRB), report its position so that others can immediately conduct follow-up observations, and then study the burst using its X-ray and Ultraviolet/Optical telescopes. The plots and videos below illustrate Swift's first 500 GRBs.
      Duration: 00:01:01
      2011-06-06

      NASA | Radio Telescopes Capture Best-Ever Snapshot of a Black Hole's Jets
      Centaurus A is a giant elliptical galazy 12 million light years away. Radio and X ray images reveal features associated with jets emanating from near the galaxy's central supermassive black hole, which has the mass of 55 million suns. Now, the TANAMI project has provided the best-ever view of these jets.
      Duration: 00:00:59
      2011-05-23

      NASA | Mississippi Flooding 2011
      Heavy spring rains and snowmelt led to devastating floods along the Mississippi River in May 2011. Landsat 5 flew over the Mississippi River on May 10, 2011, giving a distinct view of the extraordinary extent of the flooding. This was only eight days after the Army Corps of Engineers began blasting holes in earthen levees near Cairo, Illinois, when the river reached a depth of 61 feet. The extent of the 2011 flooding is compared with the same locations in April 2010.
      Duration: 00:02:09
      2011-05-20

      NASA | NASA's Fermi Spots 'Superflares' in the Crab Nebula
      The famous Crab Nebula supernova remnant has erupted in an enormous flare five times more powerful than any previously seen from the object. The outburst was first detected by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope on April 12 and lasted six days. The nebula, which is the wreckage of an exploded star whose light reached Earth in 1054, is one of the most studied objects in the sky. At the heart of an expanding gas cloud lies what's left of the original star's core, a superdense neutron star that spins 30 times a second. With each rotation, the star swings intense beams of radiation toward Earth, creating the pulsed emission characteristic of spinning neutron stars (also known as pulsars). Apart from these pulses, astrophysicists regarded the Crab Nebula to be a virtually constant source of high-energy radiation. But in January, scientists associated with several orbiting observatories -- including NASA's Fermi, Swift and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer -- reported long-term brightness changes at X-ray energies. Scientists think that the flares occur as the intense magnetic field near the pulsar undergoes sudden restructuring. Such changes can accelerate particles like electrons to velocities near the speed of light. As these high-speed electrons interact with the magnetic field, they emit gamma rays in a process known as synchrotron emission. To account for the observed emission, scientists say that the electrons must have energies 100 times greater than can be achieved in any particle accelerator on Earth. This makes them the highest-energy electrons known to be associated with any cosmic source. Based on the rise and fall of gamma rays during the April outbursts, scientists estimate that the size of the emitting region must be comparable in size to the solar system. If circular, the region must be smaller than roughly twice Pluto's average distance from the sun.
      Duration: 00:02:06
      2011-05-12

      NASA | Aquarius Ocean Circulation
      Until now, researchers did not have a full set of data on ocean salinity and how it impacts climate change. Aquarius salinity data, combined with data from other sensors that measure sea level, ocean color, temperature, winds, and rainfall, will give us a much clearer picture of how the ocean works.
      Duration: 00:01:59
      2011-05-10

      NASA | Aquarius Climate
      Sea surface salinity has a massive influence on Earth's climate. With Aquarius, scientists will have a new way to measure that influence in a consistent way. With its unprecedented accurate and consistent salinity measurements, Aquarius will help climate modelers to better understand the ocean-atmosphere processes that are changing Earth's climate.
      Duration: 00:02:14
      2011-05-10

      NASA | Aquarius Water Cycle
      Scientists need a breadth of information to understand the ocean's processes. That's where Aquarius comes in: the sensor will use advanced technologies to give NASA its first space-based measurements of sea surface salinity, helping scientists to improve predictions of future climate trends and events.
      Duration: 00:02:31
      2011-05-10

      NASA | Swift and Hubble Probe an Asteroid Crash
      Late last year, astronomers noticed that an asteroid named Scheila had unexpectedly brightened and it was sporting short-lived plumes. Data from NASA's Swift satellite and Hubble Space Telescope show that these changes likely occurred after Scheila was struck by a much smaller asteroid. On Dec. 11, 2010, images from the University of Arizona's Catalina Sky Survey, a project of NASA's Near Earth Object Observations Program, revealed the Scheila to be twice as bright as expected and immersed in a faint comet-like glow. Looking through the survey's archived images, astronomers inferred the outburst began between Nov. 11 and Dec. 3. Three days after the outburst was announced, Swift's Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) captured multiple images and a spectrum of the asteroid. Ultraviolet sunlight breaks up the gas molecules surrounding comets; water, for example, is transformed into hydroxyl (OH) and hydrogen (H). But none of the emissions most commonly identified in comets -- such as hydroxyl or cyanogen (CN) -- show up in the UVOT spectrum. The absence of gas around Scheila led the Swift team to reject scenarios where exposed ice accounted for the activity. Images show the asteroid was flanked in the north by a bright dust plume and in the south by a fainter one. The dual plumes formed as small dust particles excavated by the impact were pushed away from the asteroid by sunlight. Hubble observed the asteroid's fading dust cloud on Dec. 27, 2010, and Jan. 4, 2011. The two teams found the observations were best explained by a collision with a small asteroid impacting Scheila's surface at an angle of less than 30 degrees, leaving a crater 1,000 feet across. Laboratory experiments show a more direct strike probably wouldn't have produced two distinct dust plumes. The researchers estimated the crash ejected more than 660,000 tons of dust--equivalent to nearly twice the mass of the Empire State Building. Star Wars: Episode V - The Empire Strikes Back™ & © 1980 and 1997 Lucasfilm Ltd. All rights reserved. Used under authorization. COURTESY OF LUCASFILM LTD.
      Duration: 00:02:04
      2011-05-02

      NASA | NPP and the Earth System
      NPP is a continuation of the existing Earth-observing satellites (EOS) and it builds on the legacy of multi decades of critical data. In this video, NPP Project Scientist, James Gleason (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), summarizes the primary messages and explains the essentials of the NPP mission.
      Duration: 00:02:30
      2011-04-26

      NASA | Astrogeology Profiles: Meet Jim Rice
      Meet Jim Rice, an astrogeologist whose work has taken him to every continent on the globe. Among the many activities he has done as part of his work at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, some of Dr. Rice's favorites include participating in Desert R.A.T.S and working with the Mars rovers.
      Duration: 00:01:14
      2011-04-22

      NASA | SDO: Year One
      April 21, 2011 marks the one-year anniversary of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) First Light press conference, where NASA revealed the first images taken by the spacecraft. In the last year, the sun has gone from its quietest period in years to the activity marking the beginning of solar cycle 24. SDO has captured every moment with a level of detail never-before possible. The mission has returned unprecedented images of solar flares, eruptions of prominences, and the early stages of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this video are some of the most beautiful, interesting, and mesmerizing events seen by SDO during its first year. In the order they appear in the video the events are: 1. Prominence Eruption from AIA in 304 Angstroms on March 30, 2010 2. Cusp Flow from AIA in 171 Angstroms on February 14, 2011 3. Prominence Eruption from AIA in 304 Angstroms on February 25, 2011 4. Cusp Flow from AIA in 304 Angstroms on February 14, 2011 5. Merging Sunspots from HMI in Continuum on October 24-28, 2010 6. Prominence Eruption and active region from AIA in 304 Angstroms on April 30, 2010 7. Solar activity and plasma loops from AIA in 171 Angstroms on March 4-8, 2011 8. Flowing plasma from AIA in 304 Angstroms on April 19, 2010 9. Active regions from HMI in Magnetogram on March 10, 2011 10. Filament eruption from AIA in 304 Angstroms on December 6, 2010 11. CME start from AIA in 211 Angstroms on March 8, 2011 12. X2 flare from AIA in 304 Angstroms on February 15, 2011
      Duration: 00:02:03
      2011-04-22

      NASA | Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill
      This short video reveals a space-based view of the burning oil rig, the spill, and the location through April 1, 2011. The MODIS instrument, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, captured images of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The spill began on April 20, 2010 with the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. The oil slick appears grayish-beige in the images and changes due to changing weather, ocean currents, and the use of oil dispersing chemicals.
      Duration: 00:03:04
      2011-04-20

      NASA | Women@NASA - Meet Wanda Peters
      Meet Wanda Peters, who works at Goddard Space flight Center as the Assistant Division Chief for the Mechanical systems Division.
      Duration: 00:02:04
      2011-04-20

      NASA | Intro to LIDAR in 3D
      Want to know the 3D shape of terrain on another planet? Want to study the height and density of Earth's forests? An amazing tool called LIDAR can help. Learn more in this video! To See it in 3D go to our link on YouTube: http://youtu.be/s9gx3k6k2Gw?hd=1
      Duration: 00:02:06
      2011-04-13

      NASA | NASA Goddard in 3D
      See Goddard in 3D! This short promotional video highlights some of the best that the Goddard Space Flight Center has to offer - showcasing the science and technology born from the efforts of the dedicated Goddard family. Available here are left and right eye movies, as well as anaglyph (red/cyan). To See it in 3D go to our link on YouTube: http://youtu.be/08rMlpvUP3w?hd=1
      Duration: 00:00:54
      2011-04-13

      NASA | LAMP: Peering into the Lunar Dark
      The Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) is an instrument on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission to map and study the Moon. LAMP is a spectrograph that images the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Utilizing the faint glow of stars and other light reflected off the lunar surface, LAMP can see inside the darkest areas of the Moon to search for water ice and other valuable resources.
      Duration: 00:02:30
      2011-04-07

      NASA | Astrogeologist Jake Bleacher
      Meet Jake Bleacher, an astrogeologist in the solar system exploration division at Goddard Space Flight Center. He studies lava flows on the Earth and on other planets. Dr. Bleacher is also a participant in the Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert R.A.T.S. or D-R.A.T.S.)
      Duration: 00:01:34
      2011-04-07

      NASA | When Neutron Stars Collide
      Armed with state-of-the-art supercomputer models, scientists have shown that colliding neutron stars can produce the energetic jet required for a gamma-ray burst. Earlier simulations demonstrated that mergers could make black holes. Others had shown that the high-speed particle jets needed to make a gamma-ray burst would continue if placed in the swirling wreckage of a recent merger. Now, the simulations reveal the middle step of the process--how the merging stars' magnetic field organizes itself into outwardly directed components capable of forming a jet. The Damiana supercomputer at Germany's Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics needed six weeks to reveal the details of a process that unfolds in just 35 thousandths of a second--less than the blink of an eye.
      Duration: 00:03:27
      2011-04-07

      NASA | End of SeaWiFS
      After 13 years of service, researchers are no longer able to communicate with SeaWiFS. This extremely important instrument, which gave scienctist data on ocean color, filled a vital information gap. Subtle changes in ocean color signify various types and quantities of marine phytoplankton, the knowledge of which has both scientific and practical applications.
      Duration: 00:03:05
      2011-04-05

      NASA | LEND: The Lunar Neutron Counter
      How would you find out where to look for water on the Moon? NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter has a unique answer: Count the neutrons coming from the Moon! By measuring the relative amounts of slow and fast neutrons coming from soil on the Moon, scientists think they can estimate the amount of hydrogen. And it's believed that where there's hydrogen, there might also be water! Find out more about LEND by watching this video.
      Duration: 00:01:34
      2011-04-01

      NASA | Earth's Climate Gets a Checkup: Operation IceBridge Takes to the Skies to Monitor Changing Arctic
      NASA scientists have just begun the most recent leg of the Operation IceBridge Mission, an unprecedented six-year mission to study the Earth's polar regions, not through the lens of a satellite, but from onboard an airplane. In fact, IceBridge is the largest airborne survey of Earth's polar ice ever flown.
      Duration: 00:04:46
      2011-04-01

      NASA | Building a Bigger Bridge
      Operation IceBridge is heading back into the Arctic with two aircraft and the most sophisticated suite of instruments ever flown in polar regions. This year's mission will focus on sea ice thickness, the Canadian Ice Caps, Greenland ice sheet dynamics, and flyovers of the European Space Agency's CryoSat-2 ground validation sites.
      Duration: 00:01:56
      2011-03-15

      NASA | Glory's Suncatcher
      The Sun's energy is one of the biggest forcings on Earth's climate, and for years satellites have measured total solar irradiance. Glory will continue collection of this critical climate data, which will contribute to the long-term climate record. The cutting edge TIM instrument will continue the work of NASA's SORCE mission.
      Duration: 00:03:18
      2011-02-28

      NASA | Meet Maria Nowak
      Meet Maria Nowak who works at Goddard Space Flight Center in the Optics Board Alignment/Integration Testing group.
      Duration: 00:03:45
      2011-02-23

      NASA | Glory: Hello Crud
      This segment provides an introduction to aerosols- their varied sources, brief lifetimes, and erratic behavior. Glory's APS will help researchers determine the global distribution of aerosol particles. This unique instrument will unravel the microphysical properties of aerosols, and will shed light on the chemical composition of natural and anthropogenic aerosols and clouds.
      Duration: 00:04:42
      2011-02-16

      NASA | Glory: The Particle Puzzle
      This short video, which is part of a seven part video podcast series about NASA's Glory mission, explores the complexity of small airborne particles called aerosols. Aerosols play a key role in the climate system, but they remain a terra incognito of sorts for climatologists because of challenges associated with measuring the ubiquitous particles. Glory's Aerosol Polarimetery Sensor (APS), a unique instrument that measures the polarization of light as it scatters off the aerosols, offers a new and more accurate way to measure the perplexing particles.
      Duration: 00:05:18
      2011-02-09

      NASA | STEREO Sun360
      Launched in October 2006, STEREO traces the flow of energy and matter from the sun to Earth. It also provides unique and revolutionary views of the sun-Earth system. The mission observed the sun in 3-D for the first time in 2007. In 2009, the twin spacecraft revealed the 3-D structure of coronal mass ejections which are violent eruptions of matter from the sun that can disrupt communications, navigation, satellites and power grids on Earth. Seeing the whole sun front and back simultaneously will enable significant advances in space weather forecasting for Earth and for planning for future robotic and manned spacecraft missions throughout the solar system. These views are the result of observations by NASA's two Solar TErrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. The duo are on diametrically opposite sides of the sun, 180 degrees apart. One is ahead of Earth in its orbit, the other trailing behind.
      Duration: 00:03:00
      2011-02-09

      NASA | From Stonehenge to STEREO: A One Minute History of How We See the Sun
      Humans have always wanted to learn about the Sun, but our understanding of our favorite star has changed through the centuries. In prepartion for Sun360, when the STEREO spacecrafts will provide the first uninterrupted view of the Sun, this video is a condensed history of how we have studied the Sun over time.
      Duration: 00:01:15
      2011-02-04

      NASA | Glory: The Rough Road to Space
      Space is a harsh environment, and building a space-bound satellite is no small feat. Here's a look at how NASA engineers get the Glory mission off the ground and safely into space.
      Duration: 00:02:24
      2011-02-02

      NASA | STEREO Sun360 Teaser
      For the past 4 years, the two STEREO spacecraft have been moving away from the Earth and gaining a more complete view of the sun. On February 9, 2011, NASA will hold a press conference to reveal the first ever images of the entire sun and discuss the importance of seeing all of our dynamic star.
      Duration: 00:01:19
      2011-02-01

      NASA | NASA for Kids: Intro to Engineering
      What is engineering, and who exactly is an engineer? Learn more in this video!
      Duration: 00:02:43
      2011-01-31

      NASA | NASA's Swift Finds 'Missing' Active Galaxies
      Most large galaxies contain a giant central black hole. In an active galaxy, matter falling toward the supermassive black hole powers high-energy emissions so intense that two classes of active galaxies, quasars and blazars, rank as the most luminous objects in the universe. Thick clouds of dust and gas near the central black hole screens out ultraviolet, optical and low-energy (or soft) X-ray light. Although there are many different types of active galaxy, astronomers explain the different observed properties based on how the galaxy angles into our line of sight. We view the brightest ones nearly face on, but as the angle increases, the surrounding ring of gas and dust absorbs increasing amounts of the black hole's emissions.
      Duration: 00:02:39
      2011-01-21

      NASA | A Flickering X-ray Candle
      The Crab Nebula, created by a supernova seen nearly a thousand years ago, is one of the sky's most famous 'star wrecks.' For decades, most astronomers have regarded it as the steadiest beacon at X-ray energies, but data from orbiting observatories show unexpected variations, showing astronomers their hard X-ray "standard candle" isn't as steady as they once thought. From 1999 to 2008, the Crab brightened and faded by as much as 3.5 percent a year, and since 2008, it has faded by 7 percent. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on NASA's Fermi satellite first detected the decline, and Fermi's Large Area Telescope also spotted two gamma-ray flares at even higher energies. Scientists think the X-rays reveal processes deep within the nebula, in a region powered by a rapidly spinning neutron star -- the core of the star that blew up. But figuring out exactly where the Crab's X-rays are changing over the long term will require a new generation of X-ray telescopes.
      Duration: 00:01:50
      2011-01-13

      NASA | Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes Create Antimatter
      NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has detected beams of antimatter launched by thunderstorms. Acting like enormous particle accelerators, the storms can emit gamma-ray flashes, called TGFs, and high-energy electrons and positrons. Scientists now think that most TGFs produce particle beams and antimatter.
      Duration: 00:02:43
      2011-01-10

      NASA | Taking on Titan: An Interview With Carrie Anderson
      Since she was a little girl, Carrie Anderson has wanted to be an astronomer. Now, as a space scientist at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Carrie studies the atmosphere on Titan, one of Saturn's moons and the second largest moon in the solar system. Titan is also a model for what the early Earth might have been like. To learn about Titan, she uses an instrument on the Cassini spacecraft called CIRS.
      Duration: 00:02:48
      2010-12-17

      NASA | Human Consumption of NPP
      On Dec. 14, 2010 NASA Goddard researchers will conduct a press briefing at the American Geophysical Union Fall 2010 meeting, entitled, 'Satellite Supported Estimates of Human Rate of NPP carbon Use on Land: Challenges Ahead." In the first measurement of this trend, the research showed humans are using an increasing amount of Earth's annual production of photosynthetic land plants and that consumption rose from 20 to 25 percent from 1995 to 2005.
      Duration: 00:03:24
      2010-12-15

      NASA | Urban Heat Islands
      At the 2010 American Geophysical Union (AGU) conference in San Francisco, Dr. Ping Zhang will present her findings on the Urban Heat Island effect. The data collected spans from 1995 to 2005 and will give scientists an idea of why cities are warmer than their surrounding areas, as well as what effect this will have on the planet.
      Duration: 00:02:24
      2010-12-10

      NASA | Blacker Than Black
      The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has a team of scientists testing micro and nano technology to use on spacecraft. The goal is to reduce the reflection off the surface of the instruments so that the data does not get polluted by the scattered light. The carbon nanotubes that the team grows have proven to be 10 times better than the NASA Z306 paint, currently used on spacecraft instruments. The nanotubes are also very robust and can be grown on different materials. The team is really close to getting the carbon nanotubes approved for spaceflight.
      Duration: 00:04:39
      2010-12-02

      NASA | Teen Sailor Meets NASA Team That Saved Her Life
      n June 2010, at age 16, Abby Sunderland attempted to be the youngest person_podcasts to sail the world solo. When she found herself stranded and lost at sea, Abby's life was saved by NASA-developed satellite-based search and rescue technologies that allowed rescuers to detect her distress signal and pinpoint her location thousands of miles off the Australian coast. On October 25, 2010 Abby visited NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD to meet the team that developed the SARSAT technology, which ultimately saved here life. This video captures her visit to NASA GSFC.
      Duration: 00:03:06
      2010-11-22

      NASA | Magnetometry 101: Fluxgate Magnetometers
      NASA satellites use very sensitive devices called magnetometers to measure the magnetic fields of planets. Like very sensitive compasses, these devices can measure both direction and strength of planetary magnetic fields. Fluxgate magnetometers are a specific type of magnetometer used on many NASA missions. Learn how one works here!
      Duration: 00:01:12
      2010-11-18

      NASA | Magnetometry 101: How Magnetometry Works
      NASA satellites use very sensitive devices called magnetometers to measure the magnetic fields of planets. Like very sensitive compasses, these devices can measure both direction and strength of planetary magnetic fields.
      Duration: 00:02:00
      2010-11-18

      NASA | Inside Astrobiology: Inge ten Kate
      Inge ten Kate talks about the origin of life, the VAPOR instrument, and the unique opportunity to be both a scientist AND an engineer.
      Duration: 00:01:54
      2010-11-12

      NASA | Fermi Discovers Giant Gamma-ray Bubbles in Milky Way
      Using data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, scientists have recently discovered a gigantic, mysterious structure in our galaxy. This never-before-seen feature looks like a pair of bubbles extending above and below our galaxy's center. But these enormous gamma-ray emitting lobes aren't immediately visible in the Fermi all-sky map. However, by processing the data, a group of scientists was able to bring these unexpected structures into sharp relief. Each lobe is 25,000 light-years tall and the whole structure may be only a few million years old. Within the bubbles, extremely energetic electrons are interacting with lower-energy light to create gamma rays, but right now, no one knows the source of these electrons. Are the bubbles remnants of a massive burst of star formation? Leftovers from an eruption by the supermassive black hole at our galaxy's center? Or or did these forces work in tandem to produce them? Scientists aren't sure yet, but the more they learn about this amazing structure, the better we'll understand the Milky Way.
      Duration: 00:01:36
      2010-11-12

      NASA | James Webb Space Telescope - Planetary Evolution
      A fully produced video about planetary evolution and how the Webb Telelscope's ability to see inside dense clouds of gas and dust will help us better understand solar system formation and evolution.
      Duration: 00:03:20
      2010-11-08

      NASA | James Webb Space Telescope: Colliding Galaxies
      Deep surveys by the James Webb Space Telescope will capture the full panorama of galaxy evolution, from the earliest dwarf galaxies that formed to the familiar galaxies we see today. The Webb Telescope will help us understand how the shape, structure and chemical content of galaxies change over the sweep of cosmic history.
      Duration: 00:03:57
      2010-11-08

      NASA | James Webb Space Telescope: Galaxy Evolution
      Astrophysicists and astronomers will use the James Webb Space Telescope to see further than Hubble to witness the origin and development of galaxies.
      Duration: 00:07:48
      2010-11-08

      NASA | James Webb Space Telescope: Evolution of the Universe
      Astrophyscists and astonomers will use the James Webb Space Telescope to unravel mysteries about the evolution of the Universe. The Webb telscope will help observe how the first stars gathered into the first galaxies, and those first galaxies collided and merged into larger galaxies and evolved into the Universe we see today.
      Duration: 00:08:48
      2010-11-08

      NASA | Planetary Studies Web Feature
      The Webb Space Telescope will study planetary bodies with our solar system and planets orbiting other stars to help scientists better understand how planets form and how they evolve.
      Duration: 00:06:02
      2010-11-03

      NASA | Using Color to Search for Alien Earths
      NASA astronomer Lucy McFadden and UCLA graduate Carolyn Crow recently made a discovery that will help identify characteristics of extrasolar planets, such as the compositions of their surfaces and atmospheres. By comparing the reflected red, blue, and green light from planets in our solar system, a team led by Crow and McFadden was able to group the planets according to their similarities. As it turns out, the planets fall into very distinct regions on this plot, where the vertical direction indicates the relative amount of blue light, and the horizontal direction the relative amount of red light. This technique works even when the source of the reflected light is visible only as a point, like exoplanets appear when observed through a telescope. Therefore, scientists can use it to identify earthlike planets more easily.
      Duration: 00:02:46
      2010-11-02

      NASA | ARTEMIS Orbits Magnetic Moon
      Launched in 2007, NASA's five THEMIS spacecraft have now successfully completed their 2 year mission to determine the cause of geomagnetic substorms. Because they are continuing to work perfectly, NASA is re-directing the outermost two spacecraft to special orbits at and around the Moon. This new mission, which is called ARTEMIS, uses some very complex maneuvers over two years (2009-2010) to get both spacecraft into position.
      Duration: 00:03:12
      2010-10-27

      NASA | LRO Observes LCROSS Impact
      NASA scientists have revealed the lunar soil inside shadowy craters is rich in useful materials, that the moon is chemically active, and that it also has a water cycle. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, by observing the impact of the LCROSS spacecraft, helped contribute to these new findings.
      Duration: 00:01:14
      2010-10-21

      NASA | A New Dimension to Learning
      The Space Operations Institute (SOI) was established at Capitol College, Laurel, MD in 2002 with a grant from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This partnership between Goddard Space Flight Center and the college combine the infrastructure necessary to manage satellite operations with an educational program. It prepares students for careers in all aspects of space mission operations with hands-on experience to gain the skills and knowledge to support NASA space operations programs such as TRMM in satellite operations and development, maintenance and engineering support of satellite ground control systems.
      Duration: 00:02:24
      2010-10-20

      NASA | IceBridge 2010 Antarctic Kickoff
      On October 18th, NASA's Operation IceBridge scientists and the DC-8 crew departed for Punta Arenas, Chile where they will begin the Antarctic 2010 phase of the mission. For the next five weeks, instrumnents aboard the DC-8 will collect data to determine surface elevation and ice characteristics near and over Antarctica.
      Duration: 00:02:18
      2010-10-18

      NASA | NASA Aids in Medical Imaging
      NASA software has been incorporated into a new medical imaging device that could one day aid in the interpretation of mammograms, ultrasounds, and other medical imagery. The new MED-SEG system, developed by Bartron Medical Imaging LLC, a small Connecticut-based company with satellite offices in Maryland, relies on an innovative software program developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. This software was originally designed to analyze imagery of Earth, but soon will be doing much more.
      Duration: 00:02:42
      2010-10-15

      NASA | Earth Science Week 2010: Infrared
      How does NASA 'see' thermal radiation? This video explores what infrared energy is and how NASA detects it to study our Earth's systems more completely. Satellite measurements over time allow scientists to study seasonal changes in local and global temperatures, as well as longer term trends in temperature over time. This video also includes a look at the experiment Sir William Herschel conducted that led to the discovery of infrared.
      Duration: 00:03:12
      2010-10-13

      NASA | Earth Science Week 2010: Hurricanes
      How do hurricanes get their energy? NASA hurricane scientist Dr. Jeff Halverson explains how hurricanes draw energy from the ocean surface. The video also provides an example of a classroom activity that allows students to map the change in sea surface temperature over time. This activity from My NASA Data uses actual data gathered from Hurricane Rita, which struck the Gulf of Mexico in September 2005.
      Duration: 00:03:06
      2010-10-12

      NASA | Noah Petro, Planetary Scientist
      Noah Petro is a NASA planetary geologist who studies the surface of airless bodies in space, primarily focusing on the moon. In this video profile, Noah talks about how he was inspired to become a NASA researcher and what excites him most about his career in science.
      Duration: 00:03:42
      2010-10-07

      NASA | The How-To Guide to Satellites: The Design Review
      Building satellites isn't easy. They're complex, expensive, and not to mention hard to make! This is why whenever NASA makes a new satellite--like the MAVEN mission to Mars--its scientists and engineers do everything they can to make sure it's done right. One of the most important steps in this process is the design review, where everything is checked and double-checked to make sure the satellite is ready to build!
      Duration: 00:01:24
      2010-10-05

      NASA | MAVEN Science Teaser
      The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN), set to launch in 2013, will explore the planet's upper atmosphere, ionosphere and interactions with the sun and solar wind. Scientists will use MAVEN data to determine the role that loss of volatile compounds from the Mars atmosphere to space has played through time, giving insight into the history of Mars atmosphere and climate, liquid water, and planetary habitability.
      Duration: 00:01:30
      2010-10-05

      NASA | Webb Telescope Snapshot: Fine Guidance Sensor Arrival
      A video snap shot showing the arrival and unpacking of the JWST Fine Guidance Sensor Engineering Test Unit at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
      Duration: 00:07:24
      2010-10-01

      NASA | Webb Telescope Snapshot: Cryo-Testing
      A video snap shot showing JWST's Integrated Science Instrumnet Module (ISIM) structure inside Goddard's Space Environment Simulator after it completed cryogenic testing. The snap shot also shows engineers removing the ISIM and returning it to the clean room.
      Duration: 00:07:06
      2010-10-01

      NASA | NASA Hurricane Hunters
      During the 2010 hurricane season, NASA deployed its piloted DC-8 and WB-57, and unmanned Global Hawk aircraft in a massive effort to collect as much data as possible, arming hurricane researchers with the information needed to predict the growth and intensification of hurricanes.
      Duration: 00:04:48
      2010-09-27

      NASA | Dust Simulations Paint Alien's View of the Solar System
      Dust ground off icy bodies in the Kuiper Belt, the cold-storage zone that includes Pluto and millions of other objects, creates a faint infrared disk potentially visible to alien astronomers looking for planets around the sun. Neptune's gravitational imprint on the dust is always detectable in new simulations of how this dust moves through the solar system. By ramping up the collision rate, the simulations show how the distant view of the solar system might have changed over its history.
      Duration: 00:02:48
      2010-09-23

      NASA | Danny Glavin, Chemistry and Astrobiology
      Danny Glavin talks about crushing meteorite samples, funding, and how having the right chemistry (no pun intended) is important in an astrobiology lab.
      Duration: 00:01:30
      2010-09-22

      NASA | Robots on the Roof
      The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) is one of the first places that scientists turn when volcanoes, wildfires, pollution plumes, dust storms and many other phenomena-both natural and manmade-make an appearance. The network of ground-based instruments, called sun photometers, measures the many tiny particles blowing about in the atmosphere called aerosols. The particles are often impossible to see with human eyes, but AERONET's sensors can detect their presence by measuring subtle fluctuations in sunlight as the particles reflect and scatter the sun's rays.
      Duration: 00:03:00
      2010-09-20

      NASA | Counting Craters on the Moon
      Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), NASA scientists have created the first-ever comprehensive catalog of large craters on the moon. In this animation, lunar craters larger than 20km in diameter "light up" using LOLA elevation data. Craters light up in an east to west (Tranquillitatis toward Orientale) sweep around the Moon.
      Duration: 00:00:57
      2010-09-16

      NASA | Geronimo Villanueva, Astrobiology Lab Investigator
      Geronimo Villanueva talks about the possibility of life on Mars, trips to remote telescopes, and the research opportunities at NASA. In Spanish with English subtitles.
      Duration: 00:01:41
      2010-09-09

      NASA | Desert RATS
      Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) tests procedures and equipment that could one day be a part of human space flight missions to the moon and Mars.
      Duration: 00:03:18
      2010-09-08

      NASA | 20 Years of Hubble Science: Exoplanets
      Three astronomers in NASA Goddard's Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory discuss how Hubble's coronagraph and resulting images have helped scientists find planets orbiting distant stars.
      Duration: 00:03:13
      2010-09-08

      NASA | Wildfire and Pine Beetles
      Mountain pine beetles are native to Western forests, but in recent years their numbers have skyrocketed. As they damage more trees and kill whole regions of forest, some worry that the dead forest left behind has become a tinderbox ready to burn. But do pine beetles really increase fire risk? Using Landsat satellite data, University of Wisconsin forest ecologist Phil Townsend and his team are discovering that pine beetle damage appears not to have a significant impact in the risk of large fires. In fact, it might even reduce fire risk in some instances.
      Duration: 00:05:17
      2010-09-07

      NASA | Jason Dworkin, Astrochemistry Lab Chief
      Jason Dworkin, Chief of the Astrochemistry Laboratory, talks about solving problems, analyzing comets, and the great team of people working to answer science's biggest questions.
      Duration: 00:02:01
      2010-08-26

      NASA | Katrina Retrospective: 5 Years After the Storm
      On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall along the Gulf Coast. Five years later, NASA revisits the storm with a short video that shows Katrina as captured by satellites. Before and during the hurricane's landfall, NASA provided data gathered from a series of Earth observing satellites to help predict Katrina's path and intensity. In its aftermath, NASA satellites also helped identify areas hardest hit.
      Duration: 00:03:04
      2010-08-24

      NASA | Plant Productivity in a Warming World
      The past decade is the warmest on record since instrumental measurements began in the 1880s. Previous research suggested that in the '80s and '90s, warmer global temperatures and higher levels of precipitation - factors associated with climate change - were generally good for plant productivity. An updated analysis published this week in Science indicates that as temperatures have continued to rise, the benefits to plants are now overwhelmed by longer and more frequent droughts. High-resolution satellite data indicates a net decrease in plant productivity from 2000-2009, as compared to the previous two decades.
      Duration: 00:03:34
      2010-08-20

      NASA | LRO Reveals 'Incredible Shrinking Moon'
      Newly discovered cliffs in the lunar crust indicate the moon shrank globally in the geologically recent past and might still be shrinking today, according to a team analyzing new images from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. The results provide important clues to the moon's recent geologic and tectonic evolution.
      Duration: 00:02:01
      2010-08-19

      NASA | Joe Nuth, Senior Scientist for Primitive Bodies
      Joe Nuth, Senior Scientist for Primitive Bodies at the NASA Goddard Center for Astrobiology, talks about his job, his research, and how scientists are just like everyone else, but a little nerdier.
      Duration: 00:01:49
      2010-08-11

      NASA | Jamie Cook, Astrochemist
      Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. The Goddard Center for Astrobiology and the NASA Astrobiology Institute focus on this amazing field through research, experimentation, and work with scientists from all over the world. Jamie Cook is an astrochemist at the Goddard Center for Astrobiology.
      Duration: 00:01:34
      2010-07-27

      NASA | The Molecule Dissector - Mass Spectrometry
      What do you do if you have a sample from another planet, and you want to find out if it contains a certain molecule...maybe even one that will reveal that the planet can sustain life? When scientists face a situation like this, they employ an amazing tool: the mass spectrometer. It does the hard work of separating out materials, allowing scientists to look very closely at a sample and see what's inside. Learn more about this tool in the video from NASA Goddard's Solar System Exploration Division.
      Duration: 00:02:26
      2010-07-26

      NASA | Satellites View Growing Gulf Oil Spill (Update: 7/14/2010)
      Two NASA satellites are capturing images of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, which began April 20, 2010 with the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. This short video reveals a space-based view of the burning oil rig and, later, the resulting spread of the oil spill. This version updates a previous version of the video through July 14th. The timelapse uses imagery from the MODIS instrument, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. The oil slick appears grayish-beige in the image and changes due to changing weather, currents, and use of oil dispersing chemicals. The oil slick only appears clearly in MODIS imagery when the sun is a a particular angle in relation to the satellite's position as it orbits over the Gulf. In areas where sunlight reflects off the ocean's surface toward the satellite, oil-slicked water usually looks brighter than cleaner ocean water in the region.
      Duration: 00:02:37
      2010-07-20

      NASA | Goddard Astrobiology Research Featuring Dr. Michael Mumma
      Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. The Goddard Center for Astrobiology and the NASA Astrobiology Institute focus on this amazing field through research, experimentation, and work with scientists from all over the world. In this video, meet Dr. Michael Mumma, Director of the Goddard Center for Astrobiology, and learn about his role in the lab. This is the first in a series of profile videos featuring employees of the Goddard Center for Astrobiology.
      Duration: 00:01:48
      2010-07-12

      NASA | Know Your Earth
      This animated video shares a series of fascinating facts about how climate change affects oceans, land, the atmosphere, and ice sheets around the world. With the help of an animated astronaut touring the Earth, the video explains how NASA's Earth observing satellite fleet enables scientists to gather accurate data and understand those changes. Produced by NASA Earth Science experts, the animation will play in movie theater lobbies all over America.
      Duration: 00:03:00
      2010-07-01

      NASA | Ten Cool Things Seen in the First Year of LRO
      To celebrate one year in orbit, here are ten cool things already observed by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Note that the stories here are just a small sample of what the LRO team has released and barely touch on the major scientific accomplishments of the mission. Visit www.nasa.gov/LRO to read about these images and many more!
      Duration: 00:05:06
      2010-06-24

      NASA | The Road to Glory
      Glory is a unique research satellite designed to orbit the Earth and achieve two major goals. Glory's first goal is to collect data on the properties of aerosols and black carbon in the Earth's atmosphere and climate system; its second goal is to collect data on solar irradiance for Earth's long-term climate record. This seven-minute video introduces Glory's science objectives, people, and instruments, and provides an overview of the Glory mission.
      Duration: 00:06:51
      2010-06-16

      NASA | Ship Tracks Reveal Pollution's Effects on Clouds
      NASA's MODIS satellite instrument reveals how air pollution may alter clouds, affecting global temperatures. This narrated visualization illustrates the effect by showing how ship exhaust leaves brights cloud trails in clean ocean air. The ship tracks themselves are too small to affect global temperatures, but they help us understand how larger pollution sources might change clouds on a bigger scale.
      Duration: 00:02:13
      2010-06-03

      NASA | Supercomputing the Climate
      Goddard Space Flight Center is the home of a state-of-the-art supercomputing facility called the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) that is capable of running highly complex models to help scientists better understand Earth's climate.
      Duration: 00:05:42
      2010-06-02

      NASA | Satellites View Growing Gulf Oil Spill
      Two NASA satellites are capturing images of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, which began April 20, 2010 with the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig. This short video reveals a space-based view of the burning oil rig and, later, the ensuing oil spill through May 24. The timelapse uses imagery from the MODIS instrument, on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. The oil slick appears grayish-beige in the image and changes due to changing weather, currents, and use of oil dispersing chemicals.
      Duration: 00:01:54
      2010-05-26

      NASA | TIROS-1: The Forecast Revolution Begins
      The year 2010 marks the 50th anniversary of observing weather from space. On April 1, 1960: the world's first experimental weather satellite, TIROS-1, was launched. Within three months, TIROS-1 generated over 23,000 images of earth and its atmosphere, providing an unprecedented perspective from above and revolutionizing weather forecasting. This is an historical overview of TIROS-1, its legacy and, ultimately, the birth of remote earth observation as we know it today.
      Duration: 00:03:51
      2010-05-25

      NASA | Saved By A Weather Satellite
      This is a story about an incredibly challenging rescue that took place on January 2nd, 2010, 250 miles off the shore of North Carolina. Dennis was saved thanks to a distress signal sent from his emergency beacon (EPIRB) to the GOES satellite shortly before he was dragged under water.
      Duration: 00:04:45
      2010-05-24

      NASA | Mount St. Helens: Thirty Years Later
      Thirty years ago, Mount St. Helens roared back into major activity with a massive eruption that leveled surrounding forest, blasted away over a thousand feet of the mountain's summit, and claimed 57 human lives. This short video shows the catastrophic eruption - and the amazing recovery of the surrounding ecosystem - through the eyes of the Landsat satellites, which have been imaging our planet for almost forty years.
      Duration: 00:01:21
      2010-05-19

      NASA | SDO: Commissioning and Handover
      In order to provide the clearest scientific data for its entire 5 year mission, SDO had to undergo a rigorous, 2 month testing phase. After giving it an all-clear, the team of people who designed, built and tested the satellite now have to say goodbye as they hand it over to the scientists who will begin collecting data.
      Duration: 00:04:24
      2010-05-17

      NASA | The Smog Bloggers
      Has pollen got you sneezing? Wondering what's causing that mysterious afternoon haze? How do you find out what's in the air you are breathing? For the thousands of people who visit the University of Maryland Baltimore County's 'Smog Blog' each day, the answer is just a web click away. The Smog Bloggers combine laser measurements of current air quality with NASA satellite data to paint a daily picture of air pollution across the US. To date, the blog has received over two million hits, and is itself a big hit with weather forecasters, astronomers, asthma sufferers, and those with just a healthy curiosity about what kinds of pollution they may be breathing in.
      Duration: 00:03:59
      2010-05-12

      NASA | A Weather Satellite Watches The Sun
      GOES is a series of weather satellites providing continuous delivery of real time data helping meteorologists predict weather on Earth with great accuracy. The GOES satellites also look at the Sun and send critical data to space weather forecasters. These solar weather warnings are critical for power companies, airplanes, astronauts, and many more.
      Duration: 00:04:47
      2010-04-27

      NASA | Operation IceBridge: A Science Lab in the Arctic Sky
      One of keys to gathering data for Operation IceBridge is a highly modified McDonnell Douglas DC-8 jetliner, which NASA operates as a flying science laboratory. This workhorse DC-8 can fly long trips, allowing a suite of scientific instruments to study the Arctic ice sheet, glaciers and sea ice.
      Duration: 00:03:57
      2010-04-26

      NASA | Earth Day with Bella Gaia
      NASA Digital Learning Network celebrated Earth Day and joined musician/artist Kenji Williams for a special performance of 'Bella Gaia' (Beautiful Earth) on Monday, April 19, 2010. 'Bella Gaia' is a 'living atlas' multimedia journey of our planet and combines stunning perspectives of Earth from space with Williams' original and eclectic score. NASA cryospheric scientist Christopher Shuman joined Williams on Earth Day to give a first-hand look at a changing Antarctica. Shuman discussed what it is like to work in such a difficult and rewarding place as Antarctica and showed how the glacial poles affect our entire Earth and climate system.
      Duration: 00:01:34
      2010-04-22

      NASA | From the Sun, to You.
      The sun is BIG and to study such a huge and active subject requires an incredible amount of data. The mission up to the task is NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), a spacecraft built to send back 150 mbs of data per second, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
      Duration: 00:00:57
      2010-04-21

      NASA | Lunar Polar Craters May Be Electrified
      New research from NASA's Lunar Science Institute indicates that the solar wind may be charging certain regions at the lunar poles to hundreds of volts. In this short video Dr. Bill Farrell discusses this research and what it means for future exploration of the Moon's poles.
      Duration: 00:03:42
      2010-04-16

      NASA | The Global Hawk Eyes for Science
      NASA pilots and flight engineers, together with colleagues from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have successfully completed the first science flight of the Global Hawk aircraft over the Pacific Ocean. The Global Hawk is a robotic plane that can fly autonomously to altitudes above 60,000 feet (18.3 kilometers) -- roughly twice as high as a commercial airliner -- and as far as 11,000 nautical miles (20,000 kilometers) -- half the circumference of Earth. GloPac researchers will directly measure and sample greenhouse gases, ozone-depleting substances, aerosols, and constituents of air quality in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.
      Duration: 00:02:54
      2010-04-13

      NASA | Making the Impossible Possible
      From concept to reality, that's the NASA way. Since the first directive to put a man on the moon, NASA has been on the cutting edge of technology and innovation and continues to turn the impossible into the possible everyday.
      Duration: 00:01:12
      2010-04-08

      NASA | A Warming World Promo
      This short video announces the launch of the 'A Warming World' Web page on NASA's Global Climate Change Web site: http://climate.nasa.gov/warmingworld/
      Duration: 00:00:50
      2010-03-30

      NASA | Operation IceBridge: Greenland, Spring 2010
      The Operation IceBridge mission, the largest airborne survey ever flown of Earth's polar ice, kicked off its second year of study with NASA aircraft arriving in Greenland March 22, 2010.
      Duration: 00:02:35
      2010-03-24

      NASA | The Webb Telescope
      The Webb Telescope will be the premier observatory of the next decade, serving thousands of astronomers worldwide. It will study every phase in the history of our Universe, ranging from the first luminous glows after the Big Bang, to the formation of solar systems capable of supporting life on planets like Earth, to the evolution of our own Solar System.
      Duration: 00:01:39
      2010-03-23

      NASA | The Heliophysics Program
      This short program overview for NASA's heliophysics division explains how NASA studies the sun--and more importantly--how it affects our daily lives.
      Duration: 00:03:10
      2010-03-22

      NASA | GOES Weather with Topper Shutt
      Topper Shutt, Washington DC's WUSA Chief Meteorologist, answers viewers' questions about how he uses GOES satellite data to accurately predict the weather.
      Duration: 00:03:55
      2010-03-19

      NASA | A Landsat Flyby
      The Landsat program is the longest continuous global record of the Earth's surface, and continues to deliver both visually stunning and scientifically valuable images of our planet. This short video highlights Landsat's many benefits to society.
      Duration: 00:01:42
      2010-03-08

      NASA | GOES-P Readied For Launch
      GOES-P, set to launch in March of 2010, is the last in the N-O-P series of weather satellites and will continue providing critical data for predicting Earth and space weather. This video takes you on a tour of some of the critical facilities at Cape Canaverals Air Force Station, where go or no go decisions are made on the day of launch.
      Duration: 00:05:10
      2010-03-03

      NASA | Marco Midon - Black History Month
      This video profile shows how one individual has let neither race nor visual impairment keep him from becoming one of NASA's most talented engineers. As a Lead Systems Engineer, Marco Midon oversees the design and implementation of NASA ground stations in the area of radio frequencies. Working with new, higher data-rate dishes at White Sands in New Mexico, he was instrumental in two recent successfully launched NASA missions - the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO).
      Duration: 00:02:18
      2010-02-26

      NASA | Piecing Together the Temperature Puzzle
      The decade from 2000 to 2009 was the warmest in the modern record. 'Piecing Together the Temperature Puzzle' illustrates how NASA satellites enable us to study possible causes of climate change. The video explains what role fluctuations in the solar cycle, changes in snow and cloud cover, and rising levels of heat-trapping gases may play in contributing to climate change.
      Duration: 00:05:48
      2010-02-23

      NASA | GOES-P: Mission Overview Video
      GOES-P is set to launch in 2010. It will be the last in an improved series of satellites that has helped forecast the development of severe weather for 35 years. Operated by NOAA and launched by NASA, GOES-P will continue providing critical data used for real-time weather prediction on Earth as well as space weather events, and search and rescue efforts.
      Duration: 00:04:01
      2010-02-22

      NASA | SDO's Instruments: AIA
      SDO Project Scientist Dean Pesnell explains how the SDO's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument suite will allow us to take pictures of the sun at multiple temperatures and at resolutions never before seen.
      Duration: 00:01:50
      2010-02-12

      NASA | Introducing Little SDO
      The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will be NASA's new eye on the sun. This short promo introduces SDO's comically animated alter-ego, 'Little SDO'.
      Duration: 00:00:30
      2010-02-02

      NASA | Little SDO: Big Sun
      Little SDO demonstrates the fact that he takes really, really large pictures of the sun.
      Duration: 00:00:55
      2010-02-02

      NASA | 2009 Tied For Second Hottest Year Ever Recorded
      Scientists at the Goddard Institute for Space Science found that 2009 was tied as the second hottest year ever recorded. This is a short, news style video about this research, a more in-depth piece is on the slate to be released later this week.
      Duration: 00:02:30
      2010-01-25

      NASA | SDO: Exploring the Sun in High Definition
      The Solar Dynamics Observatory is designed to help us understand the Sun's influence on Earth and Near-Earth space by studying the solar atmosphere on small scales of space and time and in many wavelengths simultaneously. Dean Pesnell, the SDO Project Scientist, explains the science that will be done using NASA's SDO spacecraft.
      Duration: 00:03:05
      2010-01-20

      NASA | BEST: Living on the Moon
      The Beginning Engineering, Science, and Technology (BEST) team teaches a playful lesson about the challenges of living away from planet Earth. There's no free delivery in outer space!
      Duration: 00:02:42
      2010-01-12

      NASA | Welcome to the Sun
      This short teaser video introduces NASA's newest spacecraft to the heliophysics fleet, the Solar Dynamics Observatory. For more info: http://www.nasa.gov/sdo
      Duration: 00:00:40
      2010-01-06

      NASA | BEST: Graphing
      Students learn the basics of graphing with a little help from NASA's BEST (Beginning Engineering, Science, and Technology).
      Duration: 00:03:00
      2009-12-23

      NASA | Terra@10: Terra's 10th Anniversary
      The Earth-observing satellite Terra celebrates its tenth anniversary in 2009. This video highlights how Terra has helped us better understand our home planet. The satellite's five instruments - ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT - reveal how our our world is changing.
      Duration: 00:04:53
      2009-12-16

      NASA | Climate in a Box
      Climate modeling requires massive computational power. Until recently, that power required room sized machines with daunting technical and logistic requirements. But new advances in computer design, including hardware and software, continue to facilitate a paradigm shift. In an effort to broaden and democratize climate research tools, NASA has begun to facilitate the operation of new desktop sized supercomputers, with the goal of making it substantially easier for more researchers to do meaningful work on vital and essential questions for our world.
      Duration: 00:04:53
      2009-12-15

      NASA | BEST: Repeatability
      Why do engineers need to test things over and over and over again? Find out in this video made for students by BEST (Beginning Engineering, Science, and Technology).
      Duration: 00:03:08
      2009-12-09

      NASA | Suzaku: The Intergalactic Prospector
      Recently astronomers used the Suzaku orbiting X-ray observatory, operated jointly by NASA and the Japanese space agency, to discover the largest known reservoir of rare metals in the universe. Suzaku detected the elements chromium and manganese while observing the central region of the Perseus galaxy cluster. The metallic atoms are part of the hot gas, or 'intergalactic medium,' that lies between galaxies. Exploding stars, or supernovas, forge the heavy elements. The supernovas also create vast outflows, called superwinds. These galactic gusts transport heavy elements into the intergalactic void.
      Duration: 00:02:49
      2009-12-04

      NASA | The Sun Song
      The 'Chromatics' is a unique, high-energy, a-capella vocal band that delights audiences across the country. Originally formed in 1993 at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the Chromies wrote and produced their astronomically correct songs, a project they call AstroCappella. Performed in this video, 'The Sun Song' is among their many compositions. One of their CDs has even flown in space!
      Duration: 00:02:47
      2009-11-30

      NASA | Science for a Hungry World: Part 6
      How will climate change impact agriculture? This episode explores the need for accurate, continuous and accessible data and computer models to track and predict the challenges farmers face as they adjust to a changing climate.
      Duration: 00:05:12
      2009-11-05

      NASA | Einstein's Cosmic Speed Limit
      In its first year of operations, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has mapped the entire sky with unprecedented resolution and sensitivity in gamma-rays, the highest-energy form of light. On May 10, 2009 a pair of gamma-ray photons reached Fermi only 900 milliseconds apart after traveling for 7 billion years. Fermi's measurement gives us rare experimental evidence that space-time is smooth as Einstein predicted, and has shut the door on several approaches to gravity where space-time is foamy enough to interfere strongly with light.
      Duration: 00:05:45
      2009-10-29

      NASA | Science for a Hungry World: Part 5
      One of the biggest changes to global agriculture is less about the food itself as it is about the water we use to grow it. In some areas, farmers are using freshwater resources - including groundwater - at an alarming rate. The GRACE satellites enable scientists to discover changes to underground aquifers by monitoring changes in the Earth's gravity. In northern India, farmers rely heavily on irrigation to grow crops, and the resulting massive aquifer depletion creates an uncertain future for the region.
      Duration: 00:04:53
      2009-10-27

      NASA | Women in Astronomy 2009
      Space science research institutions have traditionally been populated by a strong male workforce, but this structure is rapidly changing. This short video is on the highlights and themes of the Women in Astronomy Conference for 2009.
      Duration: 00:02:30
      2009-10-26

      NASA | Science for a Hungry World: Part 4
      Sponsored by USAID, the Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) was designed to help governments and aid agencies assess the need for food aid before a famine develops. This episode describes FEWS NET and looks at how FEWS NET uses NASA data to make decisions on the ground.
      Duration: 00:05:52
      2009-10-21

      NASA | Keeping Up With Carbon
      We hope people have enjoyed our six-part Earth Science Week series 'Tides of Change.' This final episode reminds us that carbon is all around us. The unique atom is the basic building block of life, and its compounds form solids, liquids, or gases. Carbon helps form the bodies of living organisms; it dissolves in the ocean; mixes in the atmosphere; and can be stored in the crust of the planet. A carbon atom could spend millions of years moving through this complex cycle. The ocean plays the most critical role in regulating Earth's carbon balance, and understanding how the carbon cycle is changing is key to understanding Earth's changing climate.
      Duration: 00:05:38
      2009-10-16

      NASA | Melting Ice, Rising Seas
      Sea level rise is an indicator that our planet is warming. Much of the world's population lives on or near the coast, and rising seas are something worth watching. Sea level can rise for two reasons, both linked to a warming planet. When ice on land, such as mountain glaciers or the ice sheets of Greenland or Antarctica, melt, that water contributes to sea level rise. And when our oceans get warmer - another indicator of climate change - the water expands, also making sea level higher. Using satellites, lasers, and radar in space, and dedicated researchers on the ground, NASA is studying the Earth's ice and water to better understand how sea level rise might affect us all.
      Duration: 00:04:31
      2009-10-15

      NASA | Salt of the Earth
      Salinity plays a major role in how ocean waters circulate around the globe. Salinity changes can create ocean circulation changes that, in turn, may impact regional and global climates. The extent to which salinity impacts our global ocean circulation is still relatively unknown, but NASA's new Aquarius mission will help advance that understanding by painting a global picture of our planet's salty waters.
      Duration: 00:04:45
      2009-10-14

      NASA | The Ocean's Green Machines
      One tiny marine plant makes life on Earth possible: phytoplankton. These microscopic photosynthetic drifters form the basis of the marine food web, they regulate carbon in the atmosphere, and are responsible for half of the photosynthesis that takes place on this planet. Earth's climate is changing at an unprecedented rate, and as our home planet warms, so does the ocean. Warming waters have big consequences for phytoplankton and for the planet.
      Duration: 00:05:34
      2009-10-14

      NASA | Water, Water Everywhere!
      Water is all around us, and its importance to nearly every natural process on earth cannot be underestimated. The water cycle is the movement of water around the Earth in all its forms, from the ocean to the atmosphere, to snow, soil, aquifers, lakes, and streams on land, and ultimately backs to the ocean. This video explains what the water cycle is and how important it is to life on Earth.
      Duration: 00:06:31
      2009-10-13

      NASA | Climate Change and the Global Ocean
      We know climate change can affect us, but does climate change alter something as vast, deep and mysterious as our oceans? For years, scientists have studied the world's oceans by sending out ships and divers, deploying data-gathering buoys, and by taking aerial measurements from planes. But one of the better ways to understand oceans is to gain an even broader perspective - the view from space. NASA's Earth observing satellites do more than just take pictures of our planet. High-tech sensors gather data, including ocean surface temperature, surface winds, sea level, circulation, and even marine life. Information the satellites obtain help us understand the complex interactions driving the world's oceans today - and gain valuable insight into how the impacts of climate change on oceans might affect us on dry land.
      Duration: 00:05:15
      2009-10-13

      NASA | Science for a Hungry World: Part 3
      NASA remote sensing data is used to measure how much land is used for agriculture and where farms are in relation to population density. This episode explore the transition between native vegetation, farms, and cities. Satellites show where land use changes have been most significant.
      Duration: 00:04:21
      2009-10-07

      NASA | Arctic Sea Ice 101
      NASA climate scientist Tom Wagner provides a look at the state of Arctic sea ice in 2009 and discusses NASA's role in monitoring the cryosphere.
      Duration: 00:04:28
      2009-10-06

      NASA | SDO Engineers Create What Never Was
      Engineers from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center talk about what it is like to build, assemble, integrate, and test a custom-made spacecraft like the soon to be launched Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO).
      Duration: 00:03:51
      2009-10-02

      NASA | Science for a Hungry World: Part 2
      Episode two reveals why a space-based perspective is crucial to understanding how the food supply is distributed around the world. Satellites can reveal how many fields have been planted and how a crop is growing, providing a way to predict how much of a give commodity will be available at harvest. Governments and aid agencies around the world use this information to help them make informed decisions about food prices and trade and the possible need for aid long before harvest.
      Duration: 00:04:45
      2009-09-30

      NASA | LARGEST: Check Your Local Sphere for Listings
      LARGEST introduces mainstream audiences to the planet Jupiter. Though the film itself has been prepared exclusively for playback on spherical projections systems, this trailer showcases some of the visual themes contained in the movie and points to the film's main website.
      Duration: 00:00:52
      2009-09-24

      NASA | Science for a Hungry World: Part 1
      As the first of six episodes, Science for a Hungry World: Part 1 sets the groundwork for explaining why NASA data is critical to ensure a stable global food system. This video reveals how satellite remote sensing data provide the world with essential information like the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, which allows scientists and governments to see the health of crops on a global scale. This video reinforces the idea that a unique perspective from space is essential for continuous global agricultural monitoring and accurate forecasting.
      Duration: 00:04:08
      2009-09-22

      NASA | SDO's Instruments: The Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE)
      Dean Pesnell, the SDO Project Scientist, explains how the the EVE instrument will allow us to better measure solar irradiance in extreme ultraviolet wavelengths. This type of irradiance, which is absorbed completely by Earth's upper atmosphere, can be dangerous to astronauts and electronics in space.
      Duration: 00:01:08
      2009-09-21

      NASA | Take a 'Swift' Tour of the Andromeda Galaxy
      NASA's Swift satellite has acquired the highest-resolution view of the neighboring spiral galaxy M31. Also known as the Andromeda Galaxy, M31 is the largest and closest such galaxy to our own. It's more than 220,000 light-years across and lies 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. Between May 25 and July 26, 2008, Swift's Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) acquired 330 images of M31 at wavelengths of 192.8, 224.6, and 260 nanometers. The images represent a total exposure time of 24 hours. Some 20,000 ultraviolet sources are visible in the image, including M32, a small galaxy in orbit around M31. Dense clusters of hot, young, blue stars sparkle in the disk beyond the galaxy's smooth, redder central bulge. Star clusters are especially plentiful along a ring about 150,000 light-years across.
      Duration: 00:03:05
      2009-09-16

      NASA / USGS | Landsat: A Space Age Water Gauge
      Water specialists Rick Allen, Bill Kramber and Tony Morse have created an innovative satellite-based method that maps agricultural water consumption. The team uses Landsat thermal band data to measure the amount of water evaporating from the soil and transpiring from plants' leaves. Evapotranspiring water absorbs energy, so farm fields consuming more water appear cooler in the thermal band. The Landsat observations provide an objective way for water managers to assess on a field-by-field basis how much water agricultural growers are using.
      Duration: 00:04:51
      2009-09-14

      NASA | A Tour of the Cryosphere 2009
      It has been said that the frozen parts of our planet, also known as the cryosphere, may be the proverbial 'canary in the coal mine' when it comes to climate change. This video shows some of the most dramatic fluctuations to our cryosphere in recent years using visuals created with a variety of satellite-based data.
      Duration: 00:05:12
      2009-09-01

      NASA | Feeling the Sting of Climate Change
      NASA research scientist Wayne Esaias uses honey bees as tiny data collectors to understand how climate change is affecting pollination. His citizen-scientist project, HoneyBeeNet, compares bee data from across North America to satellite imagery in order to gain a big-picture perspective of how our warming climate is affecting both plants and pollinators.
      Duration: 00:04:58
      2009-08-25

      NASA | Little SDO: Tons of Data
      Little SDO demonstrates just how much data he sends every day.
      Duration: 00:01:13
      2009-08-06

      NASA | Sentinels of the Heliosphere
      What NASA calls its 'Heliophysics Observatory' is an impressive fleet of spacecraft designed (often with international partnership) to study the relationship between the Sun, Earth, and Solar System. Flying in an array of trajectories and orbits, many of these satellites do not take images in the conventional sense but record fields, particle energies and fluxes in situ to give mankind a better understanding of space weather and space environments.
      Duration: 00:07:08
      2009-08-03

      NASA / NOAA | GOES-14: First Full Disk Image
      On July 27, 2009 NOAA and NASA released the first full disk image of the Earth from GOES-14, evidence that the satellite is operating correctly.
      Duration: 00:03:28
      2009-07-28

      NASA | Goddard Space Flight Center (1976)
      Celebrating its 50th Anniversary in 2009, Goddard Space Flight Center has seen a lot of changes over its first five decades. Yet despite the time that has passed, the core values and mission of the center has changed little. This vintage film from 1976 shows a time-capsule glimpse of GSFC's early foundations and how remarkably relevant they remain today.
      Duration: 00:08:28
      2009-07-23

      NASA | Journey to Galapagos
      NASA oceanographer Dr. Gene Carl Feldman is no stranger to the Galapagos Islands, although he has never been there. He has studied these 'Enchanted Isles' from the vantage point of space for the last 25 years, but in July 2009 he will set foot on the islands for the first time.
      Duration: 00:03:36
      2009-07-22

      NASA | Partially Restored Apollo 11 Video
      To commemorate the 40th anniversary of Apollo 11, NASA released partially restored video of a series of 15 memorable moments from the July 20 moonwalk. This short video montage honors the events of the Apollo 11 Mission and uses parts of the newly restored footage.
      Duration: 00:02:17
      2009-07-16

      NASA | SDO's Instruments: The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI)
      Dean Pesnell, the SDO Project Scientist, explains how the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument will allow us to see activity inside the sun and even on the other side of the sun.
      Duration: 00:02:08
      2009-07-10

      NASA | Little SDO: Looking Inside the Sun
      Little SDO explains both how he can see inside the sun and how he can tell what you ate for lunch today.
      Duration: 00:00:58
      2009-07-10

      NASA | HD Lunar Flyover of the First Images from the LRO Camera
      NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, has transmitted its first images since reaching lunar orbit June 23. The spacecraft has two cameras -- a low resolution Wide Angle Camera and a high resolution Narrow Angle Camera. Collectively known as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera, or LROC, they were activated June 30. The cameras are working well and have returned images of a region a few kilometers east of Hell E crater in the lunar highlands south of Mare Nubium. The Narrow Angle Camera image shown here has not been calibrated and the pixel values were stretched to enhance contrast. The full image width is 3.5 kilometers making features discernable down to a few meters in size.
      Duration: 00:03:38
      2009-07-07

      NASA | GOES-O Ready to Launch!
      This video shows a quick tour and overview of the facilities where the GOES-O satellite was built and tested prior to launch. GOES-O is scheduled for liftoff Friday, June 26, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.
      Duration: 00:03:41
      2009-06-25

      NASA | Back to the Moon. It's Official.
      After a four and a half day journey from the Earth, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, successfully entered orbit around the moon. Engineers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., confirmed the spacecraft's lunar orbit insertion at 6:27 a.m. EDT Tuesday, June 23, 2009.
      Duration: 00:02:32
      2009-06-23

      NASA | LRO/LCROSS Launch
      NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter launched at 5:32 p.m. EDT aboard an Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. The satellite will relay more information about the lunar environment than any other previous mission to the moon.
      Duration: 00:02:51
      2009-06-18

      NASA | Behind the Scenes at the LRO/LCROSS Launch Prep
      Excitement is running high at Kennedy Space Center as NASA's top lunar experts prepare for the LRO/LCROSS launch.
      Duration: 00:01:43
      2009-06-18

      NASA | GOES-O Mission Overview Video
      GOES-O is set for an upcoming launch in 2009 and it will be the latest in a series of satellites that has forecasted the development of severe weather for over 25 years. Operated by NOAA and launched by NASA, GOES-O will continue providing critical data used for real-time weather prediction on Earth as well as space weather events.
      Duration: 00:03:45
      2009-06-10

      NASA | LRO: The Next Step
      LRO, coming soon to a moon near you.
      Duration: 00:01:47
      2009-06-07

      NASA | LRO: Mapping Our Future
      The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first mission in NASA's planned return to the moon. LRO is an unmanned mission to create the comprehensive atlas of the moon's features and resources necessary to design all future lunar exploration efforts. LRO focuses on the selection of safe landing sites, identification of lunar resources and the study of how lunar radiation will affect humans. Some of the lunar visualization in this video uses elevation data from JAXA/SELENE.
      Duration: 00:05:53
      2009-05-21

      NASA | Making Hubble More Powerful
      The Hubble Space Telescope would not be able to produce its breathtaking science without the upgraded infrastructure targeted during the HST SM4 mission: Fine Guidance Sensor, Scientific Instrument Command and Data Handling, Soft Capture Mechanism, Batteries, and New Outer Blanket Layers. Along with all new cameras, scientific instruments, the Hubble telescope will work better than it ever has in its lifetime.
      Duration: 00:06:00
      2009-05-19

      NASA | Inside Hubble's Control Room During a Spacewalk
      Keith Walyus describes the experience of the Servicing Mission 4 spacewalks as head of communications in the Goddard STOCC. The Space Operations Control Center, also known as the STOCC, is responsible 24/7, 365 days a year for monitoring all Hubble systems and facilitating all of the telescope's science observations. Two teams of flight controllers designated as the Orbit Team and the Planning Team will work closely with the mission control flight team in Houston in coordinating all of the activities planned as part of the final shuttle servicing mission to the Hubble Telescope.
      Duration: 00:01:10
      2009-05-15

      NASA | Hubble's STIS: The Quest for Renewed Exploration
      Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), the most versatile spectrograph ever to fly on Hubble, ceased operations in August 2004 due to the failure of its power supply. In order to restore STIS to operational status, astronauts will perform a never-before-attempted on-orbit replacement of an electronics board inside STIS's main electronics box. On Earth this operation is relatively simple, but in space many challenges confront the astronauts as they work to replace the failed board including working to remove 111 tiny, non-captive screws with astronaut gloves.
      Duration: 00:03:57
      2009-05-15

      NASA | Hubble's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph - Exploring Physics Across the Universe
      Once installed on the Hubble Space Telescope during the upcoming servicing mission this year, COS will dramatically advance physics and astrophysics research on the origin of the Universe, astronomical objects, evolution of galaxies, and planetary system formations.
      Duration: 00:04:24
      2009-05-14

      NASA | ACS Repair: The Challenge to Fix Hubble's Best Survey Camera
      Shortly after NASA Administrator Michael Griffin announced that NASA would add a servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope, Hubble's most prominent camera and most used instrument, died. The incredible engineering challenge to understand the problem, develop a strategy to fix ACS that astronauts could perform, create the tools and new circuit board components in an incredibly short time, could not have been accomplished it the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) hadn't failed a few years ealier. Goddard Engineers leveraged techniques they developed for STIS repair to fix ACS.
      Duration: 00:05:52
      2009-05-13

      NASA | STS-125 Launch for Hubble Servicing Mission 4
      Atlantis and the STS-125 crew lifted off on a mission on May 11, to upgrade the world's most famous telescope.
      Duration: 00:01:22
      2009-05-13

      NASA | Wide Field Camera 3: Extending Hubble's Vision, Packed with Power
      When placed on the Hubble Space Telescope, WFC3 will provide unprecedented capabilities for imaging the cosmos at near-ultraviolet and at near-infrared wavelengths. The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) will study a diverse range of objects and phenomena, from early and distant galaxy formation to nearby planetary nebulae, and finally our own backyard--the planets and other bodies of our Solar System. WFC3 extends Hubble's capability not only by seeing deeper into the universe but also by seeing simultaneously into the infrared and ultraviolet. WFC3 can, for example, simultaneously observe young, hot stars (glowing predominantly in the ultraviolet) and older, cooler stars (glowing predominantly in the infrared) in the same galaxy.
      Duration: 00:04:13
      2009-05-12

      NASA | Hubble SM4 Launch Highlights
      Employees at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center cheered and applauded as shuttle Atlantis successfully launched at 2:01:56 p.m. ET on May 11. The Atlantis crew embarked on the fifth and final shuttle mission to the Hubble Space Telescope. The work they do will extend Hubble's lifespan by at least five years.
      Duration: 00:02:06
      2009-05-11

      NASA | SLIC: The Unsung Hero of Hubble SM4
      The composite Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) is a new breed of equipment carrier that will allow the Space Shuttle to transport a full complement of scientific instruments and other components to Hubble. Made of carbon fiber with a cyanate ester resin and a titanium metal matrix composite, SLIC is the first all-composite carrier to fly on the shuttle. This flat, reusable pallet looks very different from the carriers flown on previous Hubble servicing missions because of its efficient design. This design, plus SLIC's composite construction, makes it much lighter and stronger than traditional aluminum carriers. About half the weight of its predecessors, SLIC shows a dramatic increase in performance over other Hubble equipment carriers, with nearly double the carrying capability.
      Duration: 00:04:24
      2009-05-11

      NASA | The Last Mission to Hubble
      Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 4 is the last time humans will visit Hubble. NASA's scientists, engineers and astronauts are working together to make Hubble better than it has been before. See what NASA has planned for this last mission to Hubble; from new science instruments, to two challenging and never-done-before instrument repairs, and numerous upgrades.
      Duration: 00:04:47
      2009-05-11

      NASA | Hubble SM4 Trailer
      Final preparations are underway for the exciting and challenging final mission to repair Hubble. Liftoff is scheduled for May 11 at 2:01 p.m. EDT, and the countdown clock will start at 4 p.m. Friday.
      Duration: 00:01:05
      2009-05-08

      NASA | Spacecraft Chamber of Horrors
      To prepare for Servicing Mission 4, Hubble components must endure harsh tests at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. This feature explores test facilities at Goddard like: launch phase simulator centrifuge, the acoustic test chamber, electromagnetic interference testing, vibration tables, static load test facility, and the space environment simulator.
      Duration: 00:03:38
      2009-05-08

      NASA | Earth Observatory 10 Year Anniversary
      April 29, 2009, marked the tenth anniversary of the launch of NASA's Earth Observatory. For the last decade, the Earth Observatory has been using the stunning images and data provided by NASA satellites to tell the story of our planet and the scientists who are working to help us understand it.
      Duration: 00:05:57
      2009-05-08

      NASA | 50 Years of Goddard
      Pioneer rocket scientist Robert H. Goddard once said, 'It is difficult to say what is impossible, for the dream of yesterday is the hope of today and the reality of tomorrow.' Fifty years after its inception, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center continues to live by these words, advancing science and engineering to new limits once thought impossible as it explores of the Earth, the sun, the solar system, and the universe.
      Duration: 00:01:35
      2009-04-30

      NASA | Return to P.I.G.
      Though NASA researcher Bob Bindschadler had hoped to return to Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf and continue his research during the 2009 season, this video explians how plans hit a snag. Sometimes science takes time, especially when it comes to dealing with the forbidding conditions of Antarctica.
      Duration: 00:03:35
      2009-04-22

      NASA | The Puffin-Satellite Connection
      In 2007, science video producer Maria Frostic took a leave of absence from her work at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to pursue a Fulbright Scholarship in Iceland. But when she got there and launched into a film about Icelandic puffins, she realized NASA science was an important part of the story...
      Duration: 00:02:29
      2009-04-20

      NASA | Anatomy of a Solar Explosion
      For the first time, NASA's twin STEREO satellites have been able to observe the true size, shape, and three-dimensional structure of the massive solar explosions known in science as coronal mass ejections.
      Duration: 00:01:48
      2009-04-15

      NASA | Viewing the Sun with SOHO and TRACE
      On April 3, 2009, countries from around the world participated in the '100 Hours of Astronomy' webcast to celebrate the International Year of Astronomy. This movie was used to introduce the SOHO/TRACE segment. Alex Young and Dawn Meyers, NASA scientists, describe how both SOHO and TRACE view the sun in their own unique way.
      Duration: 00:05:03
      2009-04-09

      NASA | Guided Tour of Antarctica Flyover
      This guided tour of the area surrounding McMurdo Station in Antarctica uses the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA). As the highest resolution satellite map of Antarctica to date, it's the best way to experience the frozen continent without any risk of frostbite!
      Duration: 00:04:50
      2009-04-06

      NASA | Greenland Ice Flights
      Nearly every spring since 1991, researchers including William Krabill of NASA's Wallops Flight Facility have flown on a NASA aircraft over Greenland, collecting measurements of ice thickness from an altitude of about 2,000 feet. Their research is essential to understand the changes going on in Earth's ice sheets.
      Duration: 00:04:25
      2009-04-03

      NASA | ACS Repair: The Challenge to Fix Hubble's Best Survey Camera
      Shortly after former NASA administrator Michael Griffin announced that NASA would add a servicing mission to the Hubble Space Telescope, Hubble's most prominent camera and most used instrument, died. The incredible engineering challenge to understand the problem, develop a strategy to fix ACS that astronauts could perform, and create the tools and new circuit board compenents in an incredibly short time, could not have been accomplished if the Space Telescope Imaging Spectograph (STIS) hadn't failed a few years earlier. Goddard engineers leveraged techniques they developed for the STIS repair to fix ACS.
      Duration: 00:05:52
      2009-03-25

      NASA | The Top 5 Solar Discoveries: Unlocking the Secrets of Space Weather
      Leading up to Sun-Earth Day on March 20th, NASA is releasing a series of videos on the top 5 solar discoveries of all time. The last, and perhaps top, solar discovery of all time is the importance of space weather and the research that strives to predict it more accurately.
      Duration: 00:01:41
      2009-03-19

      NASA | The Top 5 Solar Discoveries: A 'Squashed' Heliosphere
      Leading up to Sun-Earth Day on March 20th, NASA is releasing a series of videos on the top 5 solar discoveries of all time. This video explains how when Voyager 1 and 2 crossed the bubble of solar wind at different distances from the sun, we had to change our understanding of the shape of our solar system.
      Duration: 00:01:31
      2009-03-19

      NASA | The Top 5 Solar Discoveries: Auroras & Magnetic Reconnection
      Leading up to Sun-Earth Day on March 20th, NASA is releasing a series of videos on the top 5 solar discoveries of all time. This video explains the phenomenon of the Aurora and our growing understanding of what causes them.
      Duration: 00:01:41
      2009-03-18

      NASA | Sun-Earth Day Promo #3: Galileo's Greatest Hits
      On March 20, 2009, at 1:00 p.m. EDT, join a panel of scientists for a live Sun-Earth Day Webcast on www.nasa.gov and NASA TV. During the webcast, scientists will share discoveries about the sun, while students monitor the sun and prepare their own space weather forecasts. As Galileo would say, 'You're welcome science.'
      Duration: 00:00:50
      2009-03-18

      NASA | The Top 5 Solar Discoveries: The 11-Year Solar Cycle
      Leading up to Sun-Earth Day on March 20th, NASA is releasing a series of videos on the top 5 solar discoveries of all time. This video talks about the discovery and importance of the 11-year solar cycle.
      Duration: 00:01:10
      2009-03-18

      NASA | Sun-Earth Day Promo #2
      On March 20, 2009, at 1:00 p.m. EDT, join a panel of scientists for a live Sun-Earth Day Webcast on www.nasa.gov and NASA TV. During the webcast, scientists will share discoveries about the sun, while students monitor the sun and prepare their own space weather forecasts. In this second promo video, more people talk about what makes the sun so interesting to study.
      Duration: 00:00:55
      2009-03-18

      NASA | The Top 5 Solar Discoveries: Intro and Galileo's Sunspots
      Leading up to Sun-Earth Day on Friday, March 20th, NASA is releasing a series of videos on the top 5 solar discoveries of all time. This first video gives and introduction to the series and the first major discovery, Galileo's observations of sunspots in 1609.
      Duration: 00:01:52
      2009-03-17

      NASA | Sun-Earth Day Promo #1
      On March 20, 2009, at 1:00 p.m. EDT, join a panel of scientists for a live Sun-Earth Day Webcast on www.nasa.gov and NASA TV (available free from most satellite TV providers). During the webcast, scientists will share discoveries about the sun, while students monitor the sun and prepare their own space weather forecasts. In this short promo video, scientists and students talk about the most fascinating things they've learned about our sun.
      Duration: 00:00:44
      2009-03-17

      NASA | LRO's Team Spirit with Joanne Baker
      The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step to future manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. But a lot has to happen before we go anywhere and as LRO's Integration and Testing Lead, Joanne Baker has a big role in putting it all together.
      Duration: 00:02:21
      2009-03-09

      NASA | Earth Observing Landsat 5 Turns 25 Years Old
      On March 1, 2009, the Earth-observing Landsat 5 satellite celebrated 25 years in orbit. Twenty-two years beyond its three-year primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong, making it a keystone of the 37-year Landsat Program. Among Landsat 5's many scientific uses, it has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the retreat of a Greenland glacier. No one who attended the sallite's 1984 launch, could have expected it would still be working today.
      Duration: 00:03:34
      2009-03-03

      NASA | NOAA-N Prime Mission Overview
      The NOAA-N Prime satellite is slated for a launch by NASA on February 4th, 2009. Operated by NOAA, N Prime will be the last in the Television Infrared Observation Satellite Series (TIROS) that have been observing Earth's weather and environment for nearly 50 years. N Prime's main role will be to provide continuity of service until the launch of the next generation, highly advance National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS).
      Duration: 00:06:51
      2009-02-02

      NASA | IBEX: A Global Imager of Our Solar System's Boundaries
      NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) will create a global map of the boundaries of our solar system. The two Voyager spacecraft launched in the 1970s gave data for two points on the map, but by using energetic neutral atoms, IBEX images the entire global structure of these interstellar boundaries.
      Duration: 00:04:03
      2009-01-27

      NASA | SLIC: The Unsung Hero of Servicing Mission 4
      The composite Super Lightweight Interchangeable Carrier (SLIC) is a new breed of equipment carrier that will allow the Space Shuttle to transport a full complement of scientific instruments and other components. It is NASA's first all-composite carrier ever to fly on the shuttle and will carry the new Wide Field Camera 3 and replacement batteries for the Hubble Space Telescope during Servicing Mission 4.
      Duration: 00:04:24
      2009-01-22

      NASA | The Mystery of Martian Methane
      Mike Mumma and his team of researchers at Goddard Space Flight Center have made the first definitive observations of methane in the atmosphere of Mars. The evidence of methane plumes only during certain seasons and the chemical processes that could lead to its possible sources both raise intriguing questions for future study.
      Duration: 00:02:25
      2009-01-15

      NASA | Vision. Hope. Triumph.
      'The had to have vision; they had to have hope. And ultimately there was the triumph of seeing it come to fruition.' Heidi Hammel, a Senior Research Scientist from the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado, expresses her views on the past, present, and future of the Hubble Space Telescope and its upcoming repair mission.
      Duration: 00:04:36
      2009-01-06

      NASA | GLASTcast: Fermi Space Telescope 2008 Mission Update
      The GLAST/Fermi mission launched on June 11, 2008 and has been returning remarkable and revolutionary discoveries ever since.
      Duration: 00:05:55
      2009-01-06

      NASA | THEMIS Discovers Biggest Breach of Earth's Magnetosphere
      NASA's THEMIS mission has overturned a longstanding belief about the interaction between solar particles and Earth's protective magnetic field. This new discovery could help scientists predict when solar storms could be especially severe, protecting from damage to power grids, satellites, and navigation systems.
      Duration: 00:02:20
      2009-01-06

      NASA | Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM): Overview
      This video gives a general overview of SAM's mission aboard the Mars Science Laboratory.
      Duration: 00:01:51
      2009-01-06

      NASA | In the Zone
      Earth's oceans are wide reaching and teeming with life. One microscopic aquatic organism plays a major role in making life on Earth possible: phytoplankton. Under certain conditions, excessive phytoplankton growth can result in an area known as a 'dead zone.' This short video features dynamic animations, science data visualizations, and interview excerpts with a NASA oceanographer to explore this fascinating marine phenomenon.
      Duration: 00:02:47
      2009-01-06

      NASA | Wall*E Learns About Proportions
      Through a partnership of intergalactic proportions, NASA and Disney/Pixar have teamed up to bring Wall*E into the classroom! In this video, students learn about how to find the size of the moon using everyday objects (with a little help from Wall*E and EVE of course).
      Duration: 00:02:26
      2009-01-06

      NASA | Sea Ice 2008
      Arctic sea ice declined this past summer to its second smallest extent in the satellite era, suggesting that the record set in 2007 may not have been an anomaly. If recent trends in the melt rate continue, we could see a virtually ice-free Arctic each summer much sooner than previously thought.
      Duration: 00:03:17
      2009-01-06

      NASA | LRO Scouts for Safe Landing Sites
      The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is NASA's scouting mission to prepare for a return to the moon. One of its primary objectives will be to assess the lunar terrain for areas that would provide safe landing sites for future missions, both manned and unmanned, that plan to touch down on the moon's surface. This video helps explain how LRO will accomplish its objective.
      Duration: 00:02:59
      2009-01-06

      NASA | IBEX: What are our Solar System's Boundaries?
      There are several boundaries at the edge of our solar system. The IBEX mission is studying these boundaries to help us understand how they protect life on Earth and astronauts in space from the galactic cosmic rays coming from interstellar space. Successfully launched on October 19, 2008, IBEX is currently mapping these boundaries and will announce their results within the coming months!
      Duration: 00:03:11
      2009-01-06

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