Earth 

Antarctic Bedrock

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Above: Move bar to compare the bedrock topography (left) to the ice sheet surface (right).Download HTML to embed this in your web page.

The topography of the bedrock under the Antarctic Ice Sheet is critical to understanding the dynamic motion of the ice sheet, its thickness and its influence on the surrounding ocean and global climate. In 2001, the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) released a map of the bed under the Antarctic Ice Sheet and the seabed extending out on to the continental shelf derived from data collected by an international consortium of scientists over the prior fifty years. The resulting dataset was called BEDMAP (or BEDMAP1).

In 2013, BAS released an update of the topographic dataset called BEDMAP2 that incorporates twenty-five million measurements taken over the past two decades from the ground, air and space. This animation compares the new BEDMAP2 dataset to the original BEDMAP1 dataset showing the improvements in resolution and coverage.

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Above: Move bar to compare the Bedmap1 topography (left) to the Bedmap2 topography (right). Download HTML to embed this in your web page.

Since 2009, NASA's mission Operation IceBridge (OIB) has flown aircraft over the Antarctic Ice Sheet carrying laser and ice-penetrating radar instruments to collect data about the surface height, bedrock topography and ice thickness. This animation highlights the contribution that OIB has made to this important dataset.

The topography in this animation is exaggerated to emphasize the topographic relief. The amount of exaggeration varies based on the viewpoint, from twenty times in distant views down to nine times when near the Pine Island Bay.


Visualization Credits

Cindy Starr (GST): Lead Animator
Greg Shirah (NASA/GSFC): Animator
Horace Mitchell (NASA/GSFC): Animator
Cindy Starr (GST): Video Editor
Jefferson Beck (USRA): Narrator
Jefferson Beck (USRA): Producer
William Krabill (NASA/GSFC Wallops): Scientist
Eric J. Rignot (NASA/JPL CalTech): Scientist
P Fretwell (British Antarctic Survey): Scientist
H. D. Pritchard (British Antarctic Survey): Scientist
D. G. Vaughan (British Antarctic Survey): Scientist
J. L. Bamber (School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, UK): Scientist
N. E. Barrand (British Antarctic Survey): Scientist
R. Bell (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University): Scientist
C. Bianchi (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia): Scientist
R. G. Bingham (School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen): Scientist
D. D. Blankenship (Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin): Scientist
G. Casassa (Centro de Estudios Cientificos): Scientist
G. Catania (Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin): Scientist
D. Callens (Laboratoire de Glaciologie, Universit): Scientist
H. Conway (Earth and Space Sciences, University of Washington): Scientist
A. J. Cook (Department of Geography, Swansea University): Scientist
H. F. J. Corr (British Antarctic Survey): Scientist
D. Damaske (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources): Scientist
V. Damm (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources): Scientist
F. Ferraccioli (British Antarctic Survey): Scientist
R. Forsberg (National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark): Scientist
S. Fujita (National Institute of Polar Research): Scientist
Y. Gim (NASA/JPL CalTech): Scientist
P. Gogineni (Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Kansas): Scientist
J. A. Griggs (School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol): Scientist
R. C. A. Hindmarsh (British Antarctic Survey): Scientist
P. Holmlund (Stockholm University): Scientist
J. W. Holt (Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin): Scientist
R. W. Jacobel (St. Olaf College): Scientist
A. Jenkins (British Antarctic Survey): Scientist
W. Jokat (Alfred Wegener Institute): Scientist
T. Jordan (British Antarctic Survey): Scientist
E. C. King (British Antarctic Survey): Scientist
J. Kohler (Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre): Scientist
M. Riger-Kusk (College of Science, University of Canterbury): Scientist
K. A. Langley (Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo): Scientist
G. Leitchenkov (Institute for Geology and Mineral Resources of the World Ocean): Scientist
C. Leuschen (Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Kansas): Scientist
B. P. Luyendyk (Earth Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara): Scientist
K. Matsuoka (Norwegian Polar Institute): Scientist
Jeremie Mouginot (University of California, Irvine): Scientist
F. O. Nitsche (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University): Scientist
Y. Nogi (National Institute of Polar Research): Scientist
O. A. Nost (Norwegian Polar Institute): Scientist
S. V. Popov (Polar Marine Geosurvey Expedition): Scientist
D. M. Rippin (Environment Department, University of York): Scientist
A. Rivera (Centro de Estudios Cientificos): Scientist
J. Roberts (Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities, Australian Antarctic Division): Scientist
N. Ross (School of Geography, Politics and Sociology, Newcastle University): Scientist
M. J. Siegert (School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol): Scientist
A. M. Smith (British Antarctic Survey): Scientist
D. Steinhage (Alfred Wegener Institute): Scientist
Michael Studinger (NASA/GSFC): Scientist
B. Sun (Polar Research Institute of China): Scientist
B. K. Tinto (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University): Scientist
B. C. Welch (Alfred Wegener Institute): Scientist
D. Wilson (Instituite for Crustal Studies, University of California): Scientist
D. A. Young (Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas): Scientist
C. Xiangbin (Polar Research Institute of China): Scientist
A. Zirizzotti (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia): Scientist
Laurence Schuler (ADNET Systems, Inc.): Project Support
Ian Jones (ADNET Systems, Inc.): Project Support
Jefferson Beck (USRA): Writer
Charles Webb (SGT): Writer
George R. Hale (Telophase Corp.): Writer
Please give credit for this item to:
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

Science Paper:
Citation: Fretwell, P., Pritchard, H. D., Vaughan, D. G., Bamber, J. L., Barrand, N. E., Bell, R., Bianchi, C., Bingham, R. G., Blankenship, D. D., Casassa, G., Catania, G., Callens, D., Conway, H., Cook, A. J., Corr, H. F. J., Damaske, D., Damm, V., Ferraccioli, F., Forsberg, R., Fujita, S., Gim, Y., Gogineni, P., Griggs, J. A., Hindmarsh, R. C. A., Holmlund, P., Holt, J. W., Jacobel, R. W., Jenkins, A., Jokat, W., Jordan, T., King, E. C., Kohler, J., Krabill, W., Riger-Kusk, M., Langley, K. A., Leitchenkov, G., Leuschen, C., Luyendyk, B. P., Matsuoka, K., Mouginot, J., Nitsche, F. O., Nogi, Y., Nost, O. A., Popov, S. V., Rignot, E., Rippin, D. M., Rivera, A., Roberts, J., Ross, N., Siegert, M. J., Smith, A. M., Steinhage, D., Studinger, M., Sun, B., Tinto, B. K., Welch, B. C., Wilson, D., Young, D. A., Xiangbin, C., and Zirizzotti, A.: Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica, The Cryosphere, 7, 375-393, doi:10.5194/tc-7-375-2013, 2013.

Short URL to share this page:
http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/goto?4060

Mission:
Operation IceBridge

Data Used:
Aqua/AMSR-E/Daily L3 6.25 km 89 GHz Brightness Temperature (Tb) 04/01/2010 - 11/03/2010
Antarctic Bedmap2 Ice Thickness 2001 - 2012
Antarctic Ice Sheet Velocity 2001 - 2012
Antarctic Bedmap2 Topography 2001 - 2012
Antarctic Bedmap Topography 1958 - 2000
Operation Ice Bridge Flight Paths 2009 - 2011
Antarctic Bedmap2 Ice Surface Elevation 2001 - 2012
Aqua/AMSR-E/Level 3 12.5 km Sea Ice Concentration 04/01/2010 - 11/03/2010

Keywords:
SVS >> Antarctic Ice Sheet
DLESE >> Cryology
SVS >> HDTV
GCMD >> Earth Science >> Cryosphere
GCMD >> Earth Science >> Cryosphere >> Glaciers/Ice Sheets
GCMD >> Earth Science >> Cryosphere >> Snow/Ice
GCMD >> Earth Science >> Hydrosphere >> Glaciers/Ice Sheets
GCMD >> Earth Science >> Hydrosphere >> Snow/Ice
GCMD >> Earth Science >> Cryosphere >> Glaciers/Ice Sheets >> Glacier Elevation/Ice Sheet Elevation
GCMD >> Earth Science >> Cryosphere >> Glaciers/Ice Sheets >> Glacier Motion/Ice Sheet Motion
GCMD >> Earth Science >> Cryosphere >> Glaciers/Ice Sheets >> Glacier Thickness/Ice Sheet Thickness
GCMD >> Earth Science >> Cryosphere >> Glaciers/Ice Sheets >> Glacier Topography/Ice Sheet Topography
GCMD >> Earth Science >> Cryosphere >> Glaciers/Ice Sheets >> Glaciers
GCMD >> Earth Science >> Cryosphere >> Snow/Ice >> Ice Depth/Thickness
GCMD >> Earth Science >> Cryosphere >> Snow/Ice >> Ice Motion
GCMD >> Earth Science >> Hydrosphere >> Snow/Ice >> Ice Motion
SVS >> Hyperwall
DLESE >> Narrated
NASA Science >> Earth

GCMD keywords can be found on the Internet with the following citation: Olsen, L.M., G. Major, K. Shein, J. Scialdone, S. Ritz, T. Stevens, M. Morahan, A. Aleman, R. Vogel, S. Leicester, H. Weir, M. Meaux, S. Grebas, C.Solomon, M. Holland, T. Northcutt, R. A. Restrepo, R. Bilodeau, 2013. NASA/Global Change Master Directory (GCMD) Earth Science Keywords. Version 8.0.0.0.0